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#include <float.h> unsigned int _control87(unsigned int newcw, unsigned int mask); |
This function sets and retrieves the FPU's control word.
The control word is a special 16-bit register maintained by the math coprocessor. By setting and clearing bit fields in the control word, you can exercise control of certain aspects of coprocessor operation. The individual bits of the x87 control word are defined by macros in float.h, and shown in this table:
---- ---- --XX XXXX = MCW_EM - exception masks (1=handle exception internally, 0=fault) ---- ---- ---- ---X = EM_INVALID - invalid operation ---- ---- ---- --X- = EM_DENORMAL - denormal operand ---- ---- ---- -X-- = EM_ZERODIVIDE - divide by zero ---- ---- ---- X--- = EM_OVERFLOW - overflow ---- ---- ---X ---- = EM_UNDERFLOW - underflow ---- ---- --X- ---- = EM_INEXACT - rounding was required ---- --XX ---- ---- = MCW_PC - precision control ---- --00 ---- ---- = PC_24 - single precision ---- --10 ---- ---- = PC_53 - double precision ---- --11 ---- ---- = PC_64 - extended precision ---- XX-- ---- ---- = MCW_RC - rounding control ---- 00-- ---- ---- = RC_NEAR - round to nearest ---- 01-- ---- ---- = RC_DOWN - round towards -Inf ---- 10-- ---- ---- = RC_UP - round towards +Inf ---- 11-- ---- ---- = RC_CHOP - round towards zero ---X ---- ---- ---- = MCW_IC - infinity control (obsolete, always affine) ---0 ---- ---- ---- = IC_AFFINE - -Inf < +Inf ---1 ---- ---- ---- = IC_PROJECTIVE - -Inf == +Inf |
_control87
uses the value of newcw and mask variables
together to determine which bits of the FPU's control word should be
set, and to what values. For each bit in mask that is set (equals
to 1), the corresponding bit in newcw specifies the new value of
the same bit in the FPU's control word, which _control87
should
set. Bits which correspond to reset (zero) bits in mask are not
changed in the FPU's control word. Thus, using a zero value for
mask retrieves the current value of the control word without
changing it.
The exception bits MCW_EM
(the low-order 6 bits) of the control
word define the exception mask. That is, if a certain bit is
set, the corresponding exception will be masked, i.e., it will not
generate an FP exception (which normally causes signal SIGFPE
to
be delivered). A masked exception will be handled internally by the
coprocessor. In general, that means that it will generate special
results, such as NaN, Not-a-Number (e.g., when you attempt to
compute a square root of a negative number), denormalized result (in
case of underflow), or infinity (e.g., in the case of division by zero,
or when the result overflows).
By default, DJGPP startup code masks all FP exceptions.
The precision-control field MCW_PC
(bits 8 and 9) controls the
internal precision of the coprocessor by selecting the number of
precision bits in the mantissa of the FP numbers. The values
PC_24
, PC_53
, and PC_64
set the precision to 24,
53, and 64-bit mantissa, respectively. This feature of the coprocessor
is for compatibility with the IEEE 745 standard and only affect
the FADD
, FSUB
FSUBR
, FMUL
, FDIV
,
FDIVR
, and FSQRT
instructions. Lowering the precision
will not decrease the execution time of FP instructions.
The MCW_PC
field is set to use the full-precision 64-bit
mantissa by the DJGPP startup code.
The rounding-control field MCW_RC
(bits 10 and 11) controls the
type (round or chop) and direction (-Inf or +Inf) of the rounding. It
only affects arithmetic instructions. Set to round-to-nearest state by
the DJGPP startup code.
The infinity-control bit MCW_IC
has no effect on 80387 and later
coprocessors.
The previous control word.
(Note that this is different from what _control87
from the
Borland C library which returns the new control word.)
ANSI/ISO C | No |
POSIX | No |
/* mask all exceptions, except invalid operation */ _control87 (0x033e, 0xffff); |
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Copyright © 2004 by DJ Delorie | Updated Apr 2004 |