10.1.1 Which files are listed
These options determine which files
ls lists information for.
By default, any files and the contents of any directories on the command
line are shown.
List all files in directories, including files that start with `.'.
List all files in directories except for `.' and `..'.
Do not list files that end with `~', unless they are given on the
List just the names of directories, as with other types of files, rather
than listing their contents.
If a command line argument specifies a symbolic link, show information
for the file the link references rather than for the link itself.
- `-I PATTERN'
Do not list files whose names match the shell pattern (not regular
expression) pattern unless they are given on the command line. As
in the shell, an initial `.' in a file name does not match a
wildcard at the start of pattern. Sometimes it is useful
to give this option several times. For example,
$ ls --ignore='.??*' --ignore='.[^.]' --ignore='#*'
The first option ignores names of length 3 or more that start with `.',
the second ignores all two-character names that start with `.'
except `..', and the third ignores names that start with `#'.
When showing file information for a symbolic link, show information
for the file the link references rather than the link itself.
List the contents of all directories recursively.