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GNU tar

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GNU tar

1. Introduction  
2. Tutorial Introduction to tar  
3. Invoking GNU tar  
4. GNU tar Operations  
5. Performing Backups and Restoring Files  
6. Choosing Files and Names for tar  
7. Date input formats  
8. Controlling the Archive Format  
9. Tapes and Other Archive Media  

 -- The Detailed Node Listing ---


What this Book Contains  
1.1 Some Definitions  
1.2 What tar Does  
1.3 How tar Archives are Named  
1.4 POSIX Compliance  
1.5 GNU tar Authors  
1.6 Reporting bugs or suggestions  

Tutorial Introduction to tar

Assumptions this Tutorial Makes  
Stylistic Conventions  
2.1 Basic tar Operations and Options  
2.2 The Three Most Frequently Used Operations  
2.3 Two Frequently Used Options  
2.4 How to Create Archives  
2.5 How to List Archives  
2.6 How to Extract Members from an Archive  
2.7 Going Further Ahead in this Manual  

Two Frequently Used Options

The `--file' Option  
The `--verbose' Option  
Getting Help: Using the --help Option  

How to Create Archives

2.4.1 Preparing a Practice Directory for Examples  
2.4.2 Creating the Archive  
2.4.3 Running `--create' with `--verbose'  
2.4.4 Short Forms with `create'  
2.4.5 Archiving Directories  

How to List Archives

Listing the Contents of a Stored Directory  

How to Extract Members from an Archive

2.6.1 Extracting an Entire Archive  
2.6.2 Extracting Specific Files  
2.6.3 Extracting Files that are Directories  
2.6.4 Commands That Will Fail  

Invoking GNU tar

3.1 General Synopsis of tar  
3.2 Using tar Options  
3.3 The Three Option Styles  
3.4 All tar Options  
3.5 GNU tar documentation  
3.6 Checking tar progress  
3.7 Asking for Confirmation During Operations  

The Three Option Styles

3.3.1 Mnemonic Option Style  
3.3.2 Short Option Style  
3.3.3 Old Option Style  
3.3.4 Mixing Option Styles  

All tar Options

3.4.1 Operations  
3.4.2 tar Options  
3.4.3 Short Options Cross Reference  

GNU tar Operations

4.1 Basic GNU tar Operations  
4.2 Advanced GNU tar Operations  
4.3 Options Used by --extract  
4.4 Backup options  
4.5 Notable tar Usages  
4.6 Looking Ahead: The Rest of this Manual  

Advanced GNU tar Operations

4.2.1 The Five Advanced tar Operations  
4.2.2 The Current State of the Practice Files  
4.2.3 How to Add Files to Existing Archives: --append  
4.2.4 Updating an Archive  
4.2.5 Combining Archives with --concatenate  
4.2.6 Removing Archive Members Using `--delete'  
4.2.7 Comparing Archive Members with the File System  

How to Add Files to Existing Archives: --append Appending Files to an Archive Multiple Files with the Same Name  

Updating an Archive How to Update an Archive Using --update  

Options Used by --extract

4.3.1 Options to Help Read Archives  
4.3.2 Changing How tar Writes Files  
4.3.3 Coping with Scarce Resources  

Options to Help Read Archives

Reading Full Records  
Ignoring Blocks of Zeros  
Ignore Fail Read  

Changing How tar Writes Files

Options to Prevent Overwriting Files  
Keep Old Files  
Unlink First  
Recursive Unlink  
Setting Modification Times  
Setting Access Permissions  
Writing to Standard Output  
Removing Files  

Options to Prevent Overwriting Files

Keep Old Files  
Unlink First  
Recursive Unlink  

Coping with Scarce Resources

Starting File  
Same Order  

Performing Backups and Restoring Files

5.1 Using tar to Perform Full Dumps  
5.2 Using tar to Perform Incremental Dumps  
5.3 The Incremental Options  
5.4 Levels of Backups  
5.5 Setting Parameters for Backups and Restoration  
5.6 Using the Backup Scripts  
5.7 Using the Restore Script  

Setting Parameters for Backups and Restoration

5.5.1 An Example Text of `Backup-specs'  
5.5.2 Syntax for `Backup-specs'  

Choosing Files and Names for tar

6.1 Choosing and Naming Archive Files  Choosing the Archive's Name
6.2 Selecting Archive Members  
6.3 Reading Names from a File  
6.4 Excluding Some Files  
6.5 Wildcards Patterns and Matching  
6.6 Operating Only on New Files  
6.7 Descending into Directories  
6.8 Crossing Filesystem Boundaries  

Reading Names from a File

NUL Terminated File Names  

Excluding Some Files

Problems with Using the exclude Options  

Crossing Filesystem Boundaries

6.8.1 Changing the Working Directory  Changing Directory
6.8.2 Absolute File Names  

Date input formats

7.1 General date syntax  Common rules.
7.2 Calendar date item  19 Dec 1994.
7.3 Time of day item  9:20pm.
7.4 Timezone item  EST, DST, BST, UCT, AHST, ...
7.5 Day of week item  Monday and others.
7.6 Relative item in date strings  next tuesday, 2 years ago.
7.7 Pure numbers in date strings  19931219, 1440.
7.8 Authors of getdate  Bellovin, Salz, Berets, et al.

Controlling the Archive Format

8.1 Making tar Archives More Portable  
8.2 Using Less Space through Compression  
8.3 Handling File Attributes  
8.4 The Standard Format  
8.5 GNU Extensions to the Archive Format  
8.6 Comparison of tar and cpio  

Making tar Archives More Portable

8.1.1 Portable Names  
8.1.2 Symbolic Links  
8.1.3 Old V7 Archives  
8.1.4 GNU tar and POSIX tar  POSIX archives
8.1.5 Checksumming Problems  

Using Less Space through Compression

8.2.1 Creating and Reading Compressed Archives  
8.2.2 Archiving Sparse Files  

Tapes and Other Archive Media

9.1 Device Selection and Switching  Device selection and switching
9.2 The Remote Tape Server  
9.3 Some Common Problems and their Solutions  
9.4 Blocking  
9.5 Many Archives on One Tape  Many archives on one tape
9.6 Using Multiple Tapes  
9.7 Including a Label in the Archive  
9.8 Verifying Data as It is Stored  
9.9 Write Protection  


9.4.1 Format Variations  
9.4.2 The Blocking Factor of an Archive  

Many Archives on One Tape

9.5.1 Tape Positions and Tape Marks  
9.5.2 The mt Utility  

Using Multiple Tapes

9.6.1 Archives Longer than One Tape or Disk  
9.6.2 Tape Files  

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