configuration file The file is the configuration file for the program. It consists of lines with two fields: the field which specifies the types of messages and priorities to which the line applies, and an field which specifies the action to be taken if a message receives matches the selection criteria. The field is separated from the field by one or more tab or space characters. A rule can be splitted in several lines if all lines except the last are terminated with a backslash (``''). The function are encoded as a a period (``.''), and a with no intervening white-space. Both the and the are case insensitive. The describes the part of the system generating the message, and is one of the following keywords: auth, authpriv, cron, daemon, kern, lpr, mail, mark, news, syslog, user, uucp and local0 through local7. These keywords (with the exception of mark) correspond to the similar values specified to the and library routines. The describes the severity of the message, and is a keyword from the following ordered list (higher to lower): emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice and debug. These keywords correspond to the similar values specified to the library routine. See for a further descriptions of both the and keywords and their significance. If a received message matches the specified and is of the specified the action specified in the field will be taken. Multiple may be specified for a single by separating them with semicolon (``;'') characters. It is important to note, however, that each can modify the ones preceding it. Multiple may be specified for a single by separating them with comma (``,'') characters. An asterisk (``*'') can be used to specify all or all By default, a applies to all messages with the same or higher The equal (``='') character can be prepended to a to restrict this line of the configuration file to messages with the very same An exclamation mark (``!'') prepended to a or the asterisk means that this line of the configuration file does apply to the specified level (and higher ones). In conjunction with the equal sign, you can exclude single as well. The special ``mark'' receives a message at priority ``info'' every 20 minutes (see This is not enabled by a field containing an asterisk. The special ``none'' disables a particular The field of each line specifies the action to be taken when the field selects a message. There are five forms: A pathname (beginning with a leading slash). Selected messages are appended to the file. You may prepend a minus (``-'') to the path to omit syncing the file after each message log. This can cause data loss at system crashes, but increases performance for programs which use logging extensively. A named pipe (fifo), beginning with a vertical bar (``|'') followed by a pathname. The pipe must be created with before syslogd reads its configuration file. This feature is especially useful fo debugging. A hostname (preceded by an at (``@'') sign). Selected messages are forwarded to the program on the named host. A comma separated list of users. Selected messages are written to those users if they are logged in. An asterisk. Selected messages are written to all logged-in users. Blank lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash (``#'') character are ignored. A configuration file might appear as follows: # Log all kernel messages, authentication messages of # level notice or higher and anything of level err or # higher to the console. # Don't log private authentication messages! *.err;kern.*;auth.notice;authpriv.none /dev/console

# Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher. # Don't log private authentication messages! *.info;mail.none;authpriv.none /var/log/messages

# The authpriv file has restricted access. authpriv.* /var/log/secure

# Log all the mail messages in one place. mail.* /var/log/maillog

# Everybody gets emergency messages, plus log them on another # machine. *.emerg * *.emerg @arpa.berkeley.edu

# Root and Eric get alert and higher messages. *.alert root,eric

# Save mail and news errors of level err and higher in a # special file. uucp,news.crit /var/log/spoolerr The configuration file. The effects of multiple selectors are sometimes not intuitive. For example ``mail.crit,*.err'' will select ``mail'' facility messages at the level of ``err'' or higher, not at the level of ``crit'' or higher.

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