GNU networking utilities
2.6 The `.netrc' File
The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the
auto-login process. It resides in the user's home directory. The following
tokens are recognized; they may be separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:
- `machine name'
- Identify a remote machine name. The auto-login process searches
the .netrc file for a machine token that matches the remote ma-
chine specified on the ftp command line or as an open command
argument. Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc tokens
are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached or an-
other machine or a default token is encountered.
- This is the same as machine name except that default matches
any name. There can be only one default token, and it must be
after all machine tokens. This is normally used as:
default login anonymous password user@site
thereby giving the user automatic anonymous ftp login to machines
not specified in .netrc. This can be overridden by using
the -n flag to disable auto-login.
- `login name'
- Identify a user on the remote machine. If this token is present,
the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
- `password string'
- Supply a password. If this token is present, the auto-login
process will supply the specified string if the remote server
requires a password as part of the login process. Note that if
this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the
`.netrc' is readable by anyone besides the user.
- `account string'
- Supply an additional account password. If this token is present,
the auto-login process will supply the specified string
if the remote server requires an additional account password,
or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command if it does not.
- `macdef name'
- Define a macro. This token functions like the ftp macdef command
functions. A macro is defined with the specified name;
its contents begin with the next .netrc line and continue until
a null line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.
If a macro named init is defined, it is automatically executed
as the last step in the auto-login process.
Ftp utilizes the following environment variables.
- For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.
- For default shell.
Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
transfer code has been corrected. This correction may result in incorrect
transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii
type. Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.