GNU networking utilities
The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
command line. If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its
command interpreter and await instructions from the user. When ftp is
awaiting commands from the user the prompt `ftp>' is provided to the user.
The following commands are recognized by ftp:
- `! [command [args]]'
- Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine. If there
are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.
- `$ macro-name [args]'
- Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
command. Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
- `account [passwd]'
- Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system
for access to resources once a login has been successfully
completed. If no argument is included, the user will be
prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.
- `append local-file [remote-file]'
- Append a local file to a file on the remote machine. If
remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used
in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
or nmap setting. File transfer uses the current settings for
type, format, mode, and structure.
- Set the file transfer type to network ASCII. This is the default type.
- Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command is completed.
- Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.
- Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit
ftp. An end of file will also terminate the session and exit.
- Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget
commands. When case is on (default is off), remote computer
file names with all letters in upper case are written in the
local directory with the letters mapped to lower case.
- `cd remote-directory'
- Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-directory.
- Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
the current remote machine working directory.
- `chmod mode file-name'
- Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the re-
mote sytem to mode.
- Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return
to the command interpreter. Any defined macros are erased.
- Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file retrieval.
Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
sequence during ascii type file transfer. When cr is on (the
default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single linefeeds;
when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is off.
- `delete remote-file'
- Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
- `debug [debug-value]'
- Toggle debugging mode. If an optional debug-value is specified
it is used to set the debugging level. When debugging
is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine,
preceded by the string `-->'
- `dir [remote-directory] [local-file]'
- Print a listing of the directory contents in the directory,
remote-directory, and, optionally, placing the output in
local-file. If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt
the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the tar-
get local file for receiving dir output. If no directory is
specified, the current working directory on the remote ma-
chine is used. If no local file is specified, or local-file
is -, output comes to the terminal.
- A synonym for close.
- `form format'
- Set the file transfer form to format. The default format is "file".
- `get remote-file [local-file]'
- Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
If the local file name is not specified, it is given the same
name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by
the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings. The current
settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
transferring the file.
- Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput. If
globbing is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are
taken literally and not expanded. Globbing for mput is done
as in csh(1). For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is
expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists are
not merged. Expansion of a directory name is likely to be
different from expansion of the name of an ordinary file: the
exact result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp
server, and can be previewed by doing `mls remote-files -'
Note: mget and mput are not meant to transfer entire directo-
ry subtrees of files. That can be done by transferring a
tar(1) archive of the subtree (in binary mode).
- `hash [size]'
- Toggle hash-sign ("#") printing for each data block transferred.
The size of a data block can optionally be specified. If not given,
it defaults to 1024 bytes.
- `help [command]'
- Print an informative message about the meaning of command. If
no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.
- `idle [seconds]'
- Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds.
If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is printed.
- `lcd [directory]'
- Change the working directory on the local machine. If no
directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.
- `ls [remote-directory] [local-file]'
- Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
machine. The listing includes any system-dependent information that
the server chooses to include; for example, most
UNIX systems will produce output from the command `ls -l'.
(See also nlist.) If remote-directory is left unspecified,
the current working directory is used. If interactive
prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the
last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving
ls output. If no local file is specified, or if local-file
is `-', the output is sent to the terminal.
- `macdef macro-name'
- Define a macro. Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
input mode. There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total
characters in all defined macros. Macros remain defined until a
close command is executed. The macro processor interprets `$'
and `\' as special characters. A `$' followed by a
number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding argument
on the macro invocation command line. A `$' followed by an
`i' signals that macro processor that the executing macro is
to be looped. On the first pass `$i' is replaced by the
first argument on the macro invocation command line, on the
second pass it is replaced by the second argument, and so on.
A `\' followed by any character is replaced by that character.
Use the `\' to prevent special treatment of the `$'.
- `mdelete [remote-files]'
- Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.
- `mdir remote-files local-file'
- Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified. If
interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that
the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mdir output.
- `mget remote-files'
- Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get
for each file name thus produced. See glob for details on
the filename expansion. Resulting file names will then be
processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
Files are transferred into the local working directory, which
can be changed with `lcd directory'; new local directories
can be created with `! mkdir directory'.
- `mkdir directory-name'
- Make a directory on the remote machine.
- `mls remote-files local-file'
- Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be specified,
and the local-file must be specified. If interactive prompting is on,
ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last
argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mls output.
- `mode [mode-name]'
- Set the file transfer mode to mode-name. The default mode is
- `modtime file-name'
- Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine.
- `mput local-files'
- Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments and do
a put for each file in the resulting list. See glob for details of
filename expansion. Resulting file names will then be processed
according to ntrans and nmap settings.
- `newer file-name'
- Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
is more recent that the file on the current system. If the
file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
considered newer. Otherwise, this command is identical to get.
- `nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]'
- Print a list of the files in a directory on the remote machine.
If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current
working directory is used. If interactive prompting is on,
ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
indeed the target local file for receiving nlist output. If
no local file is specified, or if local-file is -, the output
is sent to the terminal.
- `nmap [inpattern outpattern]'
- Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism. If no arguments
are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset. If
arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
mput commands and put commands issued without a specified remote target
filename. If arguments are specified, local
filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
issued without a specified local target filename. This command is
useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer
with different file naming conventions or practices. The
mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
[Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
settings). Variable templating is accomplished by including
the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9' in inpattern. Use `\' to
prevent this special treatment of the `$' character. All
other characters are treated literally, and are used to de-
termine the nmap [inpattern] variable values. For example,
given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data",
$1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value
data". The outpattern determines the resulting mapped filename.
The sequences `$1', `$2', ...., `$9' are replaced by
any value resulting from the inpattern template. The sequence `$0' is
replace by the original filename. Additionally, the sequence
`[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by [seq1] if seq1
is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2. For
example, the command
nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input filenames
"myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for
the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the in-
put filename ".myfile". Spaces may be included in
outpattern, as in the example: `nmap $1 sed "s/ *$//" > $1'.
Use the `\' character to prevent special treatment of the
`$','[','[', and `,' characters.
- `ntrans [inchars [outchars]]'
- Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
If no arguments are specified, the filename character translation
mechanism is unset. If arguments are specified, characters in remote
filenames are translated during mput commands and put commands issued
without a specified remote target filename. If arguments are specified,
characters in local filenames are translated during mget commands and get
commands issued without a specified local target filename.
This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
replaced with the corresponding character in outchars. If the
character's position in inchars is longer than the length of
outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.
- `open host [port]'
- Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server. An
optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
attempt to contact an FTP server at that port. If the autologin
option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to automatically log
the user in to the FTP server (see below).
- Toggle passive mode. If passive mode is turned on (default
is off), the ftp client will send a PASV command for all data
connections instead of the usual PORT command. The PASV com-
mand requests that the remote server open a port for the data
connection and return the address of that port. The remote
server listens on that port and the client connects to it.
When using the more traditional PORT command, the client listens on a
port and sends that address to the remote server,
who connects back to it. Passive mode is useful when using
ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the directionality
of traffic. (Note that though ftp servers are required to support
the PASV command by RFC 1123, some do not.)
- Toggle interactive prompting. Interactive prompting occurs
during multiple file transfers to allow the user to selectively retrieve
or store files. If prompting is turned off
(default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files,
and any mdelete will delete all files.
- `proxy ftp-command'
- Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote ftp
servers for transferring files between the two servers. The
first proxy command should be an open, to establish the secondary control
connection. Enter the command "proxy ?" to
see other ftp commands executable on the secondary connection.
The following commands behave differently when prefaced by proxy:
open will not define new macros during the auto-login process, close
will not erase existing macro definitions, get and mget transfer files
from the host on the primary control connection to the host on the
secondary control connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files from the
host on the secondary control connection to the host on the
primary control connection. Third party file transfers depend upon support
of the ftp protocol PASV command by the
server on the secondary control connection.
- `put local-file [remote-file]'
- Store a local file on the remote machine. If remote-file is
left unspecified, the local file name is used after processing according
to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the remote file.
File transfer uses the current settings for type, format, mode, and structure.
- Print the name of the current working directory on the remote machine.
- A synonym for bye.
- `quote arg1 arg2 ...'
- The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server.
- `recv remote-file [local-file]'
- A synonym for get.
- `reget remote-file [local-file]'
- Reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a partially
transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
continued from the apparent point of failure. This command
is useful when transferring very large files over networks
that are prone to dropping connections.
- `remotehelp [command-name]'
- Request help from the remote FTP server. If a command-name
is specified it is supplied to the server as well.
- `remotestatus [file-name]'
- With no arguments, show status of remote machine. If filename is
specified, show status of file-name on remote machine.
- `rename [from] [to]'
- Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.
- Clear reply queue. This command re-synchronizes command/reply
sequencing with the remote ftp server. Resynchronization
may be necessary following a violation of the ftp protocol by
the remote server.
- `restart marker'
- Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
marker. On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset into the file.
- `rmdir directory-name'
- Delete a directory on the remote machine.
- Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique filenames.
If a file already exists with a name equal to the
target local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
appended to the name. If the resulting name matches another
existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name. If
this process continues up to ".99", an error message is
printed, and the transfer does not take place. The generated
unique filename will be reported. Note that runique will not
affect local files generated from a shell command (see below).
The default value is off.
- `send local-file [remote-file]'
- A synonym for put.
- Toggle the use of PORT commands. By default, ftp will attempt to use
a PORT command when establishing a connection
for each data transfer. The use of PORT commands can prevent
delays when performing multiple file transfers. If the PORT
command fails, ftp will use the default data port. When the
use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
use PORT commands for each data transfer. This is useful for
certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.
- `site arg1 arg2 ...'
- The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
server as a SITE command.
- `size file-name'
- Return size of file-name on remote machine.
- Show the current status of ftp.
- `struct [struct-name]'
- Set the file transfer structure to struct-name. By default
"stream" structure is used.
- Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
names. Remote ftp server must support ftp protocol STOU command
for successful completion. The remote server will report
unique name. Default value is off.
- Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.
- Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX machines.
- Toggle packet tracing.
- `type [type-name]'
- Set the file transfer type to type-name. If no type is specified,
the current type is printed. The default type is net- work ASCII.
- `umask [newmask]'
- Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask. If
newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.
- `user user-name [password] [account]'
- Identify yourself to the remote FTP server. If the password
is not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
the user for it (after disabling local echo). If an account
field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
user will be prompted for it. If an account field is specified,
an account command will be relayed to the remote server
after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
did not require it for logging in. Unless ftp is invoked
with "auto-login" disabled, this process is done automatically
on initial connection to the FTP server.
- Toggle verbose mode. In verbose mode, all responses from the
FTP server are displayed to the user. In addition, if verbose
is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding the
efficiency of the transfer are reported. By default, verbose is on.
- `? [command]'
- A synonym for help.
Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"'