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GNU networking utilities

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5.1 Invoking

The options are as follows:

`--echo'
Send ICMP_ECHO requests (default).

`--address'
Send ICMP_ADDRESS packets.

`--timestamp'
Send ICMP_TIMESTAMP packets.

`--router'
Send ICMP_ROUTERDISCOVERY packets.

`-c N'
`--count=N'
Stop after sending (and receiving) count ECHO_RESPONSE packets.

`-d'
`-debug'
Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.

`-i N'
`--interval=N'
Wait N seconds between sending each packet. The default is to wait for one second between each packet. This option is incompatible with the -f option.

`-n'
`--numeric'
Numeric output only. No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.

`-r'
`--ignore-routing'
Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached network. If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned. This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface that has no route through it (e.g., after the interface was dropped by routed(8)).

`-v'
`--verbose'
Verbose output. ICMP packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are received are listed.

`-f'
`--flood'
Flood ping. Outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second, whichever is more. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period "." is printed, while for every ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed. This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped. Only the super-user may use this option. This can be very hard on a network and should be used with caution.

`-l N'
`--preload=N'
If N is specified, ping sends that many packets as fast as possible before falling into its normal mode of behavior.

`-p PAT'
`--pattern=PAT'
You may specify up to 16 "pad" bytes to fill out the packet you send. This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network. For example, "-p ff" will cause the sent packet to be filled with all ones.

`-q'
`--quiet'
Quiet output. Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and when finished.

`-R'
`--route'
Record route. Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets. Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes. Many hosts ignore or discard this option.

`-s N'
`--size=N'
Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.

When using ping for fault isolation, it should first be run on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be "pinged". Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed. If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers. When the speci- fied number of packets have been sent (and received) or if the program is terminated with a SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed.

This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and man- agement. Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use ping during normal operations or from automated scripts.


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