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The GNU C Library

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12. Input/Output on Streams

This chapter describes the functions for creating streams and performing input and output operations on them. As discussed in 11. Input/Output Overview, a stream is a fairly abstract, high-level concept representing a communications channel to a file, device, or process.

12.1 Streams  About the data type representing a stream.
12.2 Standard Streams  Streams to the standard input and output devices are created for you.
12.3 Opening Streams  How to create a stream to talk to a file.
12.4 Closing Streams  Close a stream when you are finished with it.
12.5 Streams and Threads  Issues with streams in threaded programs.
12.6 Streams in Internationalized Applications  Streams in internationalized applications.
12.7 Simple Output by Characters or Lines  Unformatted output by characters and lines.
12.8 Character Input  Unformatted input by characters and words.
12.9 Line-Oriented Input  Reading a line or a record from a stream.
12.10 Unreading  Peeking ahead/pushing back input just read.
12.11 Block Input/Output  Input and output operations on blocks of data.
12.12 Formatted Output  printf and related functions.
12.13 Customizing printf  You can define new conversion specifiers for
                                 printf and friends.
12.14 Formatted Input  scanf and related functions.
12.15 End-Of-File and Errors  How you can tell if an I/O error happens.
12.16 Recovering from errors  What you can do about errors.
12.17 Text and Binary Streams  Some systems distinguish between text files and binary files.
12.18 File Positioning  About random-access streams.
12.19 Portable File-Position Functions  Random access on peculiar ISO C systems.
12.20 Stream Buffering  How to control buffering of streams.
12.21 Other Kinds of Streams  Streams that do not necessarily correspond to an open file.
12.22 Formatted Messages  Print strictly formatted messages.

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