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GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual

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32. Text

This chapter describes the functions that deal with the text in a buffer. Most examine, insert, or delete text in the current buffer, often operating at point or on text adjacent to point. Many are interactive. All the functions that change the text provide for undoing the changes (see section 32.9 Undo).

Many text-related functions operate on a region of text defined by two buffer positions passed in arguments named start and end. These arguments should be either markers (see section 31. Markers) or numeric character positions (see section 30. Positions). The order of these arguments does not matter; it is all right for start to be the end of the region and end the beginning. For example, (delete-region 1 10) and (delete-region 10 1) are equivalent. An args-out-of-range error is signaled if either start or end is outside the accessible portion of the buffer. In an interactive call, point and the mark are used for these arguments.

Throughout this chapter, "text" refers to the characters in the buffer, together with their properties (when relevant). Keep in mind that point is always between two characters, and the cursor appears on the character after point.

32.1 Examining Text Near Point  Examining text in the vicinity of point.
32.2 Examining Buffer Contents  Examining text in a general fashion.
32.3 Comparing Text  Comparing substrings of buffers.
32.4 Inserting Text  Adding new text to a buffer.
32.5 User-Level Insertion Commands  User-level commands to insert text.
32.6 Deleting Text  Removing text from a buffer.
32.7 User-Level Deletion Commands  User-level commands to delete text.
32.8 The Kill Ring  Where removed text sometimes is saved for later use.
32.9 Undo  Undoing changes to the text of a buffer.
32.10 Maintaining Undo Lists  How to enable and disable undo information. How to control how much information is kept.
32.11 Filling  Functions for explicit filling.
32.12 Margins for Filling  How to specify margins for filling commands.
32.13 Adaptive Fill Mode  Adaptive Fill mode chooses a fill prefix from context.
32.14 Auto Filling  How auto-fill mode is implemented to break lines.
32.15 Sorting Text  Functions for sorting parts of the buffer.
32.16 Counting Columns  Computing horizontal positions, and using them.
32.17 Indentation  Functions to insert or adjust indentation.
32.18 Case Changes  Case conversion of parts of the buffer.
32.19 Text Properties  Assigning Lisp property lists to text characters.
32.20 Substituting for a Character Code  Replacing a given character wherever it appears.
32.22 Transposition of Text  Swapping two portions of a buffer.
32.21 Registers  How registers are implemented. Accessing the text or position stored in a register.
32.23 Base 64 Encoding  Conversion to or from base 64 encoding.
32.24 MD5 Checksum  Compute the MD5 "message digest"/"checksum".
32.25 Change Hooks  Supplying functions to be run when text is changed.

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