www.delorie.com/gnu/docs/calc/calc_256.html | search |
Buy the book! | |
[ < ] | [ > ] | [ << ] | [ Up ] | [ >> ] | [Top] | [Contents] | [Index] | [ ? ] |
Calc has two built-in rewrite rules called IntegRules
and
IntegAfterRules
which you can edit to define new integration
methods. See section 11.11 Rewrite Rules. At each step of the integration process,
Calc wraps the current integrand in a call to the fictitious function
`integtry(expr,var)', where expr is the
integrand and var is the integration variable. If your rules
rewrite this to be a plain formula (not a call to integtry
), then
Calc will use this formula as the integral of expr. For example,
the rule `integtry(mysin(x),x) := -mycos(x)' would define a rule to
integrate a function mysin
that acts like the sine function.
Then, putting `4 mysin(2y+1)' on the stack and typing a i y
will produce the integral `-2 mycos(2y+1)'. Note that Calc has
automatically made various transformations on the integral to allow it
to use your rule; integral tables generally give rules for
`mysin(a x + b)', but you don't need to use this much generality
in your IntegRules
.
As a more serious example, the expression `exp(x)/x' cannot be
integrated in terms of the standard functions, so the "exponential
integral" function
Ei(x) was invented to describe it.
We can get Calc to do this integral in terms of a made-up Ei
function by adding the rule `[integtry(exp(x)/x, x) := Ei(x)]'
to IntegRules
. Now entering `exp(2x)/x' on the stack
and typing a i x yields `Ei(2 x)'. This new rule will
work with Calc's various built-in integration methods (such as
integration by substitution) to solve a variety of other problems
involving Ei
: For example, now Calc will also be able to
integrate `exp(exp(x))' and `ln(ln(x))' (to get `Ei(exp(x))'
and `x ln(ln(x)) - Ei(ln(x))', respectively).
Your rule may do further integration by calling integ
. For
example, `integtry(twice(u),x) := twice(integ(u))' allows Calc
to integrate `twice(sin(x))' to get `twice(-cos(x))'.
Note that integ
was called with only one argument. This notation
is allowed only within IntegRules
; it means "integrate this
with respect to the same integration variable." If Calc is unable
to integrate u
, the integration that invoked IntegRules
also fails. Thus integrating `twice(f(x))' fails, returning the
unevaluated integral `integ(twice(f(x)), x)'. It is still legal
to call integ
with two or more arguments, however; in this case,
if u
is not integrable, twice
itself will still be
integrated: If the above rule is changed to `... := twice(integ(u,x))',
then integrating `twice(f(x))' will yield `twice(integ(f(x),x))'.
If a rule instead produces the formula `integsubst(sexpr,
svar)', either replacing the top-level integtry
call or
nested anywhere inside the expression, then Calc will apply the
substitution `u = sexpr(svar)' to try to
integrate the original expr. For example, the rule
`sqrt(a) := integsubst(sqrt(x),x)' says that if Calc ever finds
a square root in the integrand, it should attempt the substitution
`u = sqrt(x)'. (This particular rule is unnecessary because
Calc always tries "obvious" substitutions where sexpr actually
appears in the integrand.) The variable svar may be the same
as the var that appeared in the call to integtry
, but
it need not be.
When integrating according to an integsubst
, Calc uses the
equation solver to find the inverse of sexpr (if the integrand
refers to var anywhere except in subexpressions that exactly
match sexpr). It uses the differentiator to find the derivative
of sexpr and/or its inverse (it has two methods that use one
derivative or the other). You can also specify these items by adding
extra arguments to the integsubst
your rules construct; the
general form is `integsubst(sexpr, svar, sinv,
sprime)', where sinv is the inverse of sexpr (still
written as a function of svar), and sprime is the
derivative of sexpr with respect to svar. If you don't
specify these things, and Calc is not able to work them out on its
own with the information it knows, then your substitution rule will
work only in very specific, simple cases.
Calc applies IntegRules
as if by C-u 1 a r IntegRules;
in other words, Calc stops rewriting as soon as any rule in your rule
set succeeds. (If it weren't for this, the `integsubst(sqrt(x),x)'
example above would keep on adding layers of integsubst
calls
forever!)
Another set of rules, stored in IntegSimpRules
, are applied
every time the integrator uses a s to simplify an intermediate
result. For example, putting the rule `twice(x) := 2 x' into
IntegSimpRules
would tell Calc to convert the twice
function into a form it knows whenever integration is attempted.
One more way to influence the integrator is to define a function with the Z F command (see section 18.4 Programming with Formulas). Calc's integrator automatically expands such functions according to their defining formulas, even if you originally asked for the function to be left unevaluated for symbolic arguments. (Certain other Calc systems, such as the differentiator and the equation solver, also do this.)
Sometimes Calc is able to find a solution to your integral, but it
expresses the result in a way that is unnecessarily complicated. If
this happens, you can either use integsubst
as described
above to try to hint at a more direct path to the desired result, or
you can use IntegAfterRules
. This is an extra rule set that
runs after the main integrator returns its result; basically, Calc does
an a r IntegAfterRules on the result before showing it to you.
(It also does an a s, without IntegSimpRules
, after that
to further simplify the result.) For example, Calc's integrator
sometimes produces expressions of the form `ln(1+x) - ln(1-x)';
the default IntegAfterRules
rewrite this into the more readable
form `2 arctanh(x)'. Note that, unlike IntegRules
,
IntegSimpRules
and IntegAfterRules
are applied any number
of times until no further changes are possible. Rewriting by
IntegAfterRules
occurs only after the main integrator has
finished, not at every step as for IntegRules
and
IntegSimpRules
.
[ < ] | [ > ] | [ << ] | [ Up ] | [ >> ] | [Top] | [Contents] | [Index] | [ ? ] |
webmaster donations bookstore | delorie software privacy |
Copyright © 2003 by The Free Software Foundation | Updated Jun 2003 |