www.delorie.com/gnu/docs/binutils/ld_24.html   search  
 
Buy GNU books!


Untitled Document

[ < ] [ > ]   [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ]         [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

3.6.4.2 Input section wildcard patterns

In an input section description, either the file name or the section name or both may be wildcard patterns.

The file name of `*' seen in many examples is a simple wildcard pattern for the file name.

The wildcard patterns are like those used by the Unix shell.

`*'
matches any number of characters
`?'
matches any single character
`[chars]'
matches a single instance of any of the chars; the `-' character may be used to specify a range of characters, as in `[a-z]' to match any lower case letter
`\'
quotes the following character

When a file name is matched with a wildcard, the wildcard characters will not match a `/' character (used to separate directory names on Unix). A pattern consisting of a single `*' character is an exception; it will always match any file name, whether it contains a `/' or not. In a section name, the wildcard characters will match a `/' character.

File name wildcard patterns only match files which are explicitly specified on the command line or in an INPUT command. The linker does not search directories to expand wildcards.

If a file name matches more than one wildcard pattern, or if a file name appears explicitly and is also matched by a wildcard pattern, the linker will use the first match in the linker script. For example, this sequence of input section descriptions is probably in error, because the `data.o' rule will not be used:
 
.data : { *(.data) }
.data1 : { data.o(.data) }

Normally, the linker will place files and sections matched by wildcards in the order in which they are seen during the link. You can change this by using the SORT keyword, which appears before a wildcard pattern in parentheses (e.g., SORT(.text*)). When the SORT keyword is used, the linker will sort the files or sections into ascending order by name before placing them in the output file.

If you ever get confused about where input sections are going, use the `-M' linker option to generate a map file. The map file shows precisely how input sections are mapped to output sections.

This example shows how wildcard patterns might be used to partition files. This linker script directs the linker to place all `.text' sections in `.text' and all `.bss' sections in `.bss'. The linker will place the `.data' section from all files beginning with an upper case character in `.DATA'; for all other files, the linker will place the `.data' section in `.data'.
 
SECTIONS {
  .text : { *(.text) }
  .DATA : { [A-Z]*(.data) }
  .data : { *(.data) }
  .bss : { *(.bss) }
}


[ < ] [ > ]   [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ]         [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

  webmaster   donations   bookstore     delorie software   privacy  
  Copyright 2003   by The Free Software Foundation     Updated Jun 2003