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2.13.1 bfd_target

Description
This structure contains everything that BFD knows about a target. It includes things like its byte order, name, and which routines to call to do various operations.

Every BFD points to a target structure with its xvec member.

The macros below are used to dispatch to functions through the bfd_target vector. They are used in a number of macros further down in `bfd.h', and are also used when calling various routines by hand inside the BFD implementation. The arglist argument must be parenthesized; it contains all the arguments to the called function.

They make the documentation (more) unpleasant to read, so if someone wants to fix this and not break the above, please do.
 
#define BFD_SEND(bfd, message, arglist) \
               ((*((bfd)->xvec->message)) arglist)

#ifdef DEBUG_BFD_SEND
#undef BFD_SEND
#define BFD_SEND(bfd, message, arglist) \
  (((bfd) && (bfd)->xvec && (bfd)->xvec->message) ? \
    ((*((bfd)->xvec->message)) arglist) : \
    (bfd_assert (__FILE__,__LINE__), NULL))
#endif
For operations which index on the BFD format:
 
#define BFD_SEND_FMT(bfd, message, arglist) \
            (((bfd)->xvec->message[(int) ((bfd)->format)]) arglist)

#ifdef DEBUG_BFD_SEND
#undef BFD_SEND_FMT
#define BFD_SEND_FMT(bfd, message, arglist) \
  (((bfd) && (bfd)->xvec && (bfd)->xvec->message) ? \
   (((bfd)->xvec->message[(int) ((bfd)->format)]) arglist) : \
   (bfd_assert (__FILE__,__LINE__), NULL))
#endif

This is the structure which defines the type of BFD this is. The xvec member of the struct bfd itself points here. Each module that implements access to a different target under BFD, defines one of these.

FIXME, these names should be rationalised with the names of the entry points which call them. Too bad we can't have one macro to define them both!
 
enum bfd_flavour
{
  bfd_target_unknown_flavour,
  bfd_target_aout_flavour,
  bfd_target_coff_flavour,
  bfd_target_ecoff_flavour,
  bfd_target_xcoff_flavour,
  bfd_target_elf_flavour,
  bfd_target_ieee_flavour,
  bfd_target_nlm_flavour,
  bfd_target_oasys_flavour,
  bfd_target_tekhex_flavour,
  bfd_target_srec_flavour,
  bfd_target_ihex_flavour,
  bfd_target_som_flavour,
  bfd_target_os9k_flavour,
  bfd_target_versados_flavour,
  bfd_target_msdos_flavour,
  bfd_target_ovax_flavour,
  bfd_target_evax_flavour,
  bfd_target_mmo_flavour
};

enum bfd_endian { BFD_ENDIAN_BIG, BFD_ENDIAN_LITTLE, BFD_ENDIAN_UNKNOWN };

/* Forward declaration.  */
typedef struct bfd_link_info _bfd_link_info;

typedef struct bfd_target
{
  /* Identifies the kind of target, e.g., SunOS4, Ultrix, etc.  */
  char *name;

 /* The "flavour" of a back end is a general indication about
    the contents of a file.  */
  enum bfd_flavour flavour;

  /* The order of bytes within the data area of a file.  */
  enum bfd_endian byteorder;

 /* The order of bytes within the header parts of a file.  */
  enum bfd_endian header_byteorder;

  /* A mask of all the flags which an executable may have set -
     from the set BFD_NO_FLAGS, HAS_RELOC, ...D_PAGED.  */
  flagword object_flags;

 /* A mask of all the flags which a section may have set - from
    the set SEC_NO_FLAGS, SEC_ALLOC, ...SET_NEVER_LOAD.  */
  flagword section_flags;

 /* The character normally found at the front of a symbol.
    (if any), perhaps `_'.  */
  char symbol_leading_char;

 /* The pad character for file names within an archive header.  */
  char ar_pad_char;

  /* The maximum number of characters in an archive header.  */
  unsigned short ar_max_namelen;

  /* Entries for byte swapping for data. These are different from the
     other entry points, since they don't take a BFD asthe first argument.
     Certain other handlers could do the same.  */
  bfd_vma        (*bfd_getx64) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  bfd_signed_vma (*bfd_getx_signed_64) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  void           (*bfd_putx64) PARAMS ((bfd_vma, bfd_byte *));
  bfd_vma        (*bfd_getx32) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  bfd_signed_vma (*bfd_getx_signed_32) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  void           (*bfd_putx32) PARAMS ((bfd_vma, bfd_byte *));
  bfd_vma        (*bfd_getx16) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  bfd_signed_vma (*bfd_getx_signed_16) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  void           (*bfd_putx16) PARAMS ((bfd_vma, bfd_byte *));

  /* Byte swapping for the headers.  */
  bfd_vma        (*bfd_h_getx64) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  bfd_signed_vma (*bfd_h_getx_signed_64) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  void           (*bfd_h_putx64) PARAMS ((bfd_vma, bfd_byte *));
  bfd_vma        (*bfd_h_getx32) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  bfd_signed_vma (*bfd_h_getx_signed_32) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  void           (*bfd_h_putx32) PARAMS ((bfd_vma, bfd_byte *));
  bfd_vma        (*bfd_h_getx16) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  bfd_signed_vma (*bfd_h_getx_signed_16) PARAMS ((const bfd_byte *));
  void           (*bfd_h_putx16) PARAMS ((bfd_vma, bfd_byte *));

  /* Format dependent routines: these are vectors of entry points
     within the target vector structure, one for each format to check.  */

  /* Check the format of a file being read.  Return a bfd_target * or zero.  */
  const struct bfd_target *(*_bfd_check_format[bfd_type_end]) PARAMS ((bfd *));

  /* Set the format of a file being written.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_set_format[bfd_type_end]) PARAMS ((bfd *));

  /* Write cached information into a file being written, at bfd_close.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_write_contents[bfd_type_end]) PARAMS ((bfd *));

The general target vector. These vectors are initialized using the BFD_JUMP_TABLE macros.
 
  /* Generic entry points.  */
Do not "beautify" the CONCAT* macro args. Traditional C will not remove whitespace added here, and thus will fail to concatenate the tokens.
 
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_GENERIC(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_close_and_cleanup), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_free_cached_info), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_new_section_hook), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_section_contents), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_section_contents_in_window)

  /* Called when the BFD is being closed to do any necessary cleanup.  */
  boolean  (*_close_and_cleanup) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  /* Ask the BFD to free all cached information.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_free_cached_info) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  /* Called when a new section is created.  */
  boolean  (*_new_section_hook) PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr));
  /* Read the contents of a section.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_get_section_contents) PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr, PTR,
                                                 file_ptr, bfd_size_type));
  boolean  (*_bfd_get_section_contents_in_window)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr, bfd_window *, file_ptr, bfd_size_type));

  /* Entry points to copy private data.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_COPY(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_copy_private_bfd_data), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_merge_private_bfd_data), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_copy_private_section_data), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_copy_private_symbol_data), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_set_private_flags), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_print_private_bfd_data) \
  /* Called to copy BFD general private data from one object file
     to another.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_copy_private_bfd_data) PARAMS ((bfd *, bfd *));
  /* Called to merge BFD general private data from one object file
     to a common output file when linking.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_merge_private_bfd_data) PARAMS ((bfd *, bfd *));
  /* Called to copy BFD private section data from one object file
     to another.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_copy_private_section_data) PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr,
                                                      bfd *, sec_ptr));
  /* Called to copy BFD private symbol data from one symbol
     to another.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_copy_private_symbol_data) PARAMS ((bfd *, asymbol *,
                                                     bfd *, asymbol *));
  /* Called to set private backend flags.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_set_private_flags) PARAMS ((bfd *, flagword));

  /* Called to print private BFD data.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_print_private_bfd_data) PARAMS ((bfd *, PTR));

  /* Core file entry points.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_CORE(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_core_file_failing_command), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_core_file_failing_signal), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_core_file_matches_executable_p)
  char *   (*_core_file_failing_command) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  int      (*_core_file_failing_signal) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  boolean  (*_core_file_matches_executable_p) PARAMS ((bfd *, bfd *));

  /* Archive entry points.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_ARCHIVE(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_slurp_armap), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_slurp_extended_name_table), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_construct_extended_name_table), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_truncate_arname), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_write_armap), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_read_ar_hdr), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_openr_next_archived_file), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_elt_at_index), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_generic_stat_arch_elt), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_update_armap_timestamp)
  boolean  (*_bfd_slurp_armap) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  boolean  (*_bfd_slurp_extended_name_table) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  boolean  (*_bfd_construct_extended_name_table)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, char **, bfd_size_type *, const char **));
  void     (*_bfd_truncate_arname) PARAMS ((bfd *, const char *, char *));
  boolean  (*write_armap)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, unsigned int, struct orl *, unsigned int, int));
  PTR      (*_bfd_read_ar_hdr_fn) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  bfd *    (*openr_next_archived_file) PARAMS ((bfd *, bfd *));
#define bfd_get_elt_at_index(b,i) BFD_SEND(b, _bfd_get_elt_at_index, (b,i))
  bfd *    (*_bfd_get_elt_at_index) PARAMS ((bfd *, symindex));
  int      (*_bfd_stat_arch_elt) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct stat *));
  boolean  (*_bfd_update_armap_timestamp) PARAMS ((bfd *));

  /* Entry points used for symbols.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_SYMBOLS(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_symtab_upper_bound), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_symtab), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_make_empty_symbol), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_print_symbol), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_symbol_info), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_is_local_label_name), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_lineno), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_find_nearest_line), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_make_debug_symbol), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_read_minisymbols), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_minisymbol_to_symbol)
  long     (*_bfd_get_symtab_upper_bound) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  long     (*_bfd_canonicalize_symtab) PARAMS ((bfd *,
                                                struct symbol_cache_entry **));
  struct symbol_cache_entry *
           (*_bfd_make_empty_symbol) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  void     (*_bfd_print_symbol) PARAMS ((bfd *, PTR,
                                         struct symbol_cache_entry *,
                                         bfd_print_symbol_type));
#define bfd_print_symbol(b,p,s,e) BFD_SEND(b, _bfd_print_symbol, (b,p,s,e))
  void     (*_bfd_get_symbol_info) PARAMS ((bfd *,
                                            struct symbol_cache_entry *,
                                            symbol_info *));
#define bfd_get_symbol_info(b,p,e) BFD_SEND(b, _bfd_get_symbol_info, (b,p,e))
  boolean  (*_bfd_is_local_label_name) PARAMS ((bfd *, const char *));

  alent *  (*_get_lineno) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct symbol_cache_entry *));
  boolean  (*_bfd_find_nearest_line)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, struct sec *, struct symbol_cache_entry **, bfd_vma,
             const char **, const char **, unsigned int *));
 /* Back-door to allow format-aware applications to create debug symbols
    while using BFD for everything else.  Currently used by the assembler
    when creating COFF files.  */
  asymbol *(*_bfd_make_debug_symbol) PARAMS ((bfd *, void *,
                                              unsigned long size));
#define bfd_read_minisymbols(b, d, m, s) \
  BFD_SEND (b, _read_minisymbols, (b, d, m, s))
  long     (*_read_minisymbols) PARAMS ((bfd *, boolean, PTR *,
                                         unsigned int *));
#define bfd_minisymbol_to_symbol(b, d, m, f) \
  BFD_SEND (b, _minisymbol_to_symbol, (b, d, m, f))
  asymbol *(*_minisymbol_to_symbol) PARAMS ((bfd *, boolean, const PTR,
                                             asymbol *));

  /* Routines for relocs.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_RELOCS(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_reloc_upper_bound), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_canonicalize_reloc), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_reloc_type_lookup)
  long     (*_get_reloc_upper_bound) PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr));
  long     (*_bfd_canonicalize_reloc) PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr, arelent **,
                                               struct symbol_cache_entry **));
  /* See documentation on reloc types.  */
  reloc_howto_type *
           (*reloc_type_lookup) PARAMS ((bfd *, bfd_reloc_code_real_type));

  /* Routines used when writing an object file.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_WRITE(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_set_arch_mach), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_set_section_contents)
  boolean  (*_bfd_set_arch_mach) PARAMS ((bfd *, enum bfd_architecture,
                                          unsigned long));
  boolean  (*_bfd_set_section_contents) PARAMS ((bfd *, sec_ptr, PTR,
                                                 file_ptr, bfd_size_type));

  /* Routines used by the linker.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_LINK(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_sizeof_headers), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_get_relocated_section_contents), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_relax_section), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_link_hash_table_create), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_link_hash_table_free), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_link_add_symbols), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_link_just_syms), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_final_link), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_link_split_section), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_gc_sections), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_merge_sections), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_bfd_discard_group)
  int      (*_bfd_sizeof_headers) PARAMS ((bfd *, boolean));
  bfd_byte *(*_bfd_get_relocated_section_contents)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, struct bfd_link_info *, struct bfd_link_order *,
             bfd_byte *, boolean, struct symbol_cache_entry **));

  boolean  (*_bfd_relax_section)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, struct sec *, struct bfd_link_info *, boolean *));

  /* Create a hash table for the linker.  Different backends store
     different information in this table.  */
  struct bfd_link_hash_table *(*_bfd_link_hash_table_create) PARAMS ((bfd *));

  /* Release the memory associated with the linker hash table.  */
  void (*_bfd_link_hash_table_free) PARAMS ((struct bfd_link_hash_table *));

  /* Add symbols from this object file into the hash table.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_link_add_symbols) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct bfd_link_info *));

  /* Indicate that we are only retrieving symbol values from this section.  */
  void     (*_bfd_link_just_syms) PARAMS ((asection *, struct bfd_link_info *));

  /* Do a link based on the link_order structures attached to each
     section of the BFD.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_final_link) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct bfd_link_info *));

  /* Should this section be split up into smaller pieces during linking.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_link_split_section) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct sec *));

  /* Remove sections that are not referenced from the output.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_gc_sections) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct bfd_link_info *));

  /* Attempt to merge SEC_MERGE sections.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_merge_sections) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct bfd_link_info *));

  /* Discard members of a group.  */
  boolean  (*_bfd_discard_group) PARAMS ((bfd *, struct sec *));

  /* Routines to handle dynamic symbols and relocs.  */
#define BFD_JUMP_TABLE_DYNAMIC(NAME) \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_dynamic_symtab_upper_bound), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_canonicalize_dynamic_symtab), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_get_dynamic_reloc_upper_bound), \
CONCAT2 (NAME,_canonicalize_dynamic_reloc)
  /* Get the amount of memory required to hold the dynamic symbols.  */
  long     (*_bfd_get_dynamic_symtab_upper_bound) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  /* Read in the dynamic symbols.  */
  long     (*_bfd_canonicalize_dynamic_symtab)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, struct symbol_cache_entry **));
  /* Get the amount of memory required to hold the dynamic relocs.  */
  long     (*_bfd_get_dynamic_reloc_upper_bound) PARAMS ((bfd *));
  /* Read in the dynamic relocs.  */
  long     (*_bfd_canonicalize_dynamic_reloc)
    PARAMS ((bfd *, arelent **, struct symbol_cache_entry **));

A pointer to an alternative bfd_target in case the current one is not satisfactory. This can happen when the target cpu supports both big and little endian code, and target chosen by the linker has the wrong endianness. The function open_output() in ld/ldlang.c uses this field to find an alternative output format that is suitable.
 
  /* Opposite endian version of this target.  */
  const struct bfd_target * alternative_target;

  /* Data for use by back-end routines, which isn't
     generic enough to belong in this structure.  */
  PTR backend_data;

} bfd_target;


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