www.delorie.com/gnu/docs/bash/bashref_65.html   search  
 
Buy the book!


Bash Reference Manual

[ < ] [ > ]   [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ]         [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

6.2 Bash Startup Files

This section describs how Bash executes its startup files. If any of the files exist but cannot be read, Bash reports an error. Tildes are expanded in file names as described above under Tilde Expansion (see section 3.5.2 Tilde Expansion).

Interactive shells are described in 6.3 Interactive Shells.

Invoked as an interactive login shell, or with `--login'

When Bash is invoked as an interactive login shell, or as a non-interactive shell with the `--login' option, it first reads and executes commands from the file `/etc/profile', if that file exists. After reading that file, it looks for `~/.bash_profile', `~/.bash_login', and `~/.profile', in that order, and reads and executes commands from the first one that exists and is readable. The `--noprofile' option may be used when the shell is started to inhibit this behavior.

When a login shell exits, Bash reads and executes commands from the file `~/.bash_logout', if it exists.

Invoked as an interactive non-login shell

When an interactive shell that is not a login shell is started, Bash reads and executes commands from `~/.bashrc', if that file exists. This may be inhibited by using the `--norc' option. The `--rcfile file' option will force Bash to read and execute commands from file instead of `~/.bashrc'.

So, typically, your `~/.bash_profile' contains the line
 
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then . ~/.bashrc; fi
after (or before) any login-specific initializations.

Invoked non-interactively

When Bash is started non-interactively, to run a shell script, for example, it looks for the variable BASH_ENV in the environment, expands its value if it appears there, and uses the expanded value as the name of a file to read and execute. Bash behaves as if the following command were executed:
 
if [ -n "$BASH_ENV" ]; then . "$BASH_ENV"; fi
but the value of the PATH variable is not used to search for the file name.

As noted above, if a non-interactive shell is invoked with the `--login' option, Bash attempts to read and execute commands from the login shell startup files.

Invoked with name sh

If Bash is invoked with the name sh, it tries to mimic the startup behavior of historical versions of sh as closely as possible, while conforming to the POSIX standard as well.

When invoked as an interactive login shell, or as a non-interactive shell with the `--login' option, it first attempts to read and execute commands from `/etc/profile' and `~/.profile', in that order. The `--noprofile' option may be used to inhibit this behavior. When invoked as an interactive shell with the name sh, Bash looks for the variable ENV, expands its value if it is defined, and uses the expanded value as the name of a file to read and execute. Since a shell invoked as sh does not attempt to read and execute commands from any other startup files, the `--rcfile' option has no effect. A non-interactive shell invoked with the name sh does not attempt to read any other startup files.

When invoked as sh, Bash enters POSIX mode after the startup files are read.

Invoked in POSIX mode

When Bash is started in POSIX mode, as with the `--posix' command line option, it follows the POSIX standard for startup files. In this mode, interactive shells expand the ENV variable and commands are read and executed from the file whose name is the expanded value. No other startup files are read.

Invoked by remote shell daemon

Bash attempts to determine when it is being run by the remote shell daemon, usually rshd. If Bash determines it is being run by rshd, it reads and executes commands from `~/.bashrc', if that file exists and is readable. It will not do this if invoked as sh. The `--norc' option may be used to inhibit this behavior, and the `--rcfile' option may be used to force another file to be read, but rshd does not generally invoke the shell with those options or allow them to be specified.

Invoked with unequal effective and real UID/GIDs

If Bash is started with the effective user (group) id not equal to the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not supplied, no startup files are read, shell functions are not inherited from the environment, the SHELLOPTS variable, if it appears in the environment, is ignored, and the effective user id is set to the real user id. If the -p option is supplied at invocation, the startup behavior is the same, but the effective user id is not reset.


[ < ] [ > ]   [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ]         [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

  webmaster   donations   bookstore     delorie software   privacy  
  Copyright 2003   by The Free Software Foundation     Updated Jun 2003