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Bash Reference Manual

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9.3.1 Event Designators

An event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the history list.

!
Start a history substitution, except when followed by a space, tab, the end of the line, `=' or `('.

!n
Refer to command line n.

!-n
Refer to the command n lines back.

!!
Refer to the previous command. This is a synonym for `!-1'.

!string
Refer to the most recent command starting with string.

!?string[?]
Refer to the most recent command containing string. The trailing `?' may be omitted if the string is followed immediately by a newline.

^string1^string2^
Quick Substitution. Repeat the last command, replacing string1 with string2. Equivalent to !!:s/string1/string2/.

!#
The entire command line typed so far.


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