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Autoconf

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Autoconf

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1. Introduction  Autoconf's purpose, strengths, and weaknesses
2. The GNU Build System  A set of tools for portable software packages
3. Making configure Scripts  How to organize and produce Autoconf scripts
4. Initialization and Output Files  Initialization and output
5. Existing Tests  Macros that check for particular features
6. Writing Tests  How to write new feature checks
7. Results of Tests  What to do with results from feature checks
8. Programming in M4  Layers on top of which Autoconf is written
9. Writing Autoconf Macros  Adding new macros to Autoconf
10. Portable Shell Programming  Shell script portability pitfalls
11. Manual Configuration  Selecting features that can't be guessed
12. Site Configuration  Local defaults for configure
13. Running configure Scripts  How to use the Autoconf output
14. Recreating a Configuration  Recreating a configuration
15. Obsolete Constructs  Kept for backward compatibility
16. Generating Test Suites with Autotest  Creating portable test suites
17. Frequent Autoconf Questions, with answers  
18. History of Autoconf  
A. Copying This Manual  How to make copies of this manual
B. Indices  Indices of symbols, concepts, etc.

 -- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The GNU Build System

2.1 Automake  Escaping Makefile hell
2.2 Libtool  Building libraries portably
2.3 Pointers  More info on the GNU build system

Making configure Scripts

3.1 Writing `configure.ac'  What to put in an Autoconf input file
3.2 Using autoscan to Create `configure.ac'  Semi-automatic `configure.ac' writing
3.3 Using ifnames to List Conditionals  Listing the conditionals in source code
3.4 Using autoconf to Create configure  How to create configuration scripts
3.5 Using autoreconf to Update configure Scripts  Remaking multiple configure scripts

Writing `configure.ac'

3.1.1 A Shell Script Compiler  Autoconf as solution of a problem
3.1.2 The Autoconf Language  Programming in Autoconf
3.1.3 Standard `configure.ac' Layout  Standard organization of `configure.ac'

Initialization and Output Files

4.1 Initializing configure  Option processing etc.
4.2 Notices in configure  Copyright, version numbers in configure
4.3 Finding configure Input  Where Autoconf should find files
4.4 Outputting Files  Outputting results from the configuration
4.5 Performing Configuration Actions  Preparing the output based on results
4.6 Creating Configuration Files  Creating output files
4.7 Substitutions in Makefiles  Using output variables in `Makefile's
4.8 Configuration Header Files  Creating a configuration header file
4.9 Running Arbitrary Configuration Commands  Running arbitrary instantiation commands
4.10 Creating Configuration Links  Links depending on the configuration
4.11 Configuring Other Packages in Subdirectories  Configuring independent packages together
4.12 Default Prefix  Changing the default installation prefix

Substitutions in Makefiles

4.7.1 Preset Output Variables  Output variables that are always set
4.7.2 Installation Directory Variables  Other preset output variables
4.7.3 Build Directories  Supporting multiple concurrent compiles
4.7.4 Automatic Remaking  Makefile rules for configuring

Configuration Header Files

4.8.1 Configuration Header Templates  Input for the configuration headers
4.8.2 Using autoheader to Create `config.h.in'  How to create configuration templates
4.8.3 Autoheader Macros  How to specify CPP templates

Existing Tests

5.1 Common Behavior  Macros' standard schemes
5.2 Alternative Programs  Selecting between alternative programs
5.3 Files  Checking for the existence of files
5.4 Library Files  Library archives that might be missing
5.5 Library Functions  C library functions that might be missing
5.6 Header Files  Header files that might be missing
5.7 Declarations  Declarations that may be missing
5.8 Structures  Structures or members that might be missing
5.9 Types  Types that might be missing
5.10 Compilers and Preprocessors  Checking for compiling programs
5.11 System Services  Operating system services
5.12 UNIX Variants  Special kludges for specific UNIX variants

Common Behavior

5.1.1 Standard Symbols  Symbols defined by the macros
5.1.2 Default Includes  Includes used by the generic macros

Alternative Programs

5.2.1 Particular Program Checks  Special handling to find certain programs
5.2.2 Generic Program and File Checks  How to find other programs

Library Functions

5.5.1 Portability of C Functions  Pitfalls with usual functions
5.5.2 Particular Function Checks  Special handling to find certain functions
5.5.3 Generic Function Checks  How to find other functions

Header Files

5.6.1 Portability of Headers  Collected knowledge on common headers
5.6.2 Particular Header Checks  Special handling to find certain headers
5.6.3 Generic Header Checks  How to find other headers

Declarations

5.7.1 Particular Declaration Checks  Macros to check for certain declarations
5.7.2 Generic Declaration Checks  How to find other declarations

Structures

5.8.1 Particular Structure Checks  Macros to check for certain structure members
5.8.2 Generic Structure Checks  How to find other structure members

Types

5.9.1 Particular Type Checks  Special handling to find certain types
5.9.2 Generic Type Checks  How to find other types

Compilers and Preprocessors

5.10.1 Specific Compiler Characteristics  Some portability issues
5.10.2 Generic Compiler Characteristics  Language independent tests
5.10.3 C Compiler Characteristics  Checking its characteristics
5.10.4 C++ Compiler Characteristics  Likewise
5.10.5 Fortran 77 Compiler Characteristics  Likewise

Writing Tests

6.1 Language Choice  Selecting which language to use for testing
6.2 Writing Test Programs  Forging source files for compilers
6.3 Running the Preprocessor  Detecting preprocessor symbols
6.4 Running the Compiler  Detecting language or header features
6.5 Running the Linker  Detecting library features
6.6 Checking Run Time Behavior  Testing for run-time features
6.7 Systemology  A zoology of operating systems
6.8 Multiple Cases  Tests for several possible values

Writing Test Programs

6.2.1 Guidelines for Test Programs  General rules for writing test programs
6.2.2 Test Functions  Avoiding pitfalls in test programs
6.2.3 Generating Sources  Source program boilerplate

Results of Tests

7.1 Defining C Preprocessor Symbols  Defining C preprocessor symbols
7.2 Setting Output Variables  Replacing variables in output files
7.3 Caching Results  Speeding up subsequent configure runs
7.4 Printing Messages  Notifying configure users

Caching Results

7.3.1 Cache Variable Names  Shell variables used in caches
7.3.2 Cache Files  Files configure uses for caching
7.3.3 Cache Checkpointing  Loading and saving the cache file

Programming in M4

8.1 M4 Quotation  Protecting macros from unwanted expansion
8.2 Using autom4te  The Autoconf executables backbone
8.3 Programming in M4sugar  Convenient pure M4 macros
8.4 Programming in M4sh  Common shell Constructs

M4 Quotation

8.1.1 Active Characters  Characters that change the behavior of M4
8.1.2 One Macro Call  Quotation and one macro call
8.1.3 Quotation and Nested Macros  Macros calling macros
8.1.4 changequote is Evil  Worse than INTERCAL: M4 + changequote
8.1.5 Quadrigraphs  Another way to escape special characters
8.1.6 Quotation Rule Of Thumb  One parenthesis, one quote

Using autom4te

8.2.1 Invoking autom4te  A GNU M4 wrapper
8.2.2 Customizing autom4te  Customizing the Autoconf package

Programming in M4sugar

8.3.1 Redefined M4 Macros  M4 builtins changed in M4sugar
8.3.2 Evaluation Macros  More quotation and evaluation control
8.3.3 Forbidden Patterns  Catching unexpanded macros

Writing Autoconf Macros

9.1 Macro Definitions  Basic format of an Autoconf macro
9.2 Macro Names  What to call your new macros
9.3 Reporting Messages  Notifying autoconf users
9.4 Dependencies Between Macros  What to do when macros depend on other macros
9.5 Obsoleting Macros  Warning about old ways of doing things
9.6 Coding Style  Writing Autoconf macros à la Autoconf

Dependencies Between Macros

9.4.1 Prerequisite Macros  Ensuring required information
9.4.2 Suggested Ordering  Warning about possible ordering problems

Portable Shell Programming

10.1 Shellology  A zoology of shells
10.2 Here-Documents  Quirks and tricks
10.3 File Descriptors  FDs and redirections
10.4 File System Conventions  File- and pathnames
10.5 Shell Substitutions  Variable and command expansions
10.6 Assignments  Varying side effects of assignments
10.7 Special Shell Variables  Variables you should not change
10.8 Limitations of Shell Builtins  Portable use of not so portable /bin/sh
10.9 Limitations of Usual Tools  Portable use of portable tools
10.10 Limitations of Make  Portable Makefiles

Manual Configuration

11.1 Specifying the System Type  Specifying the system type
11.2 Getting the Canonical System Type  Getting the canonical system type
11.3 Using the System Type  What to do with the system type

Site Configuration

12.1 Working With External Software  Working with other optional software
12.2 Choosing Package Options  Selecting optional features
12.3 Making Your Help Strings Look Pretty  Formatting help string
12.4 Configuring Site Details  Configuring site details
12.5 Transforming Program Names When Installing  Changing program names when installing
12.6 Setting Site Defaults  Giving configure local defaults

Transforming Program Names When Installing

12.5.1 Transformation Options  configure options to transform names
12.5.2 Transformation Examples  Sample uses of transforming names
12.5.3 Transformation Rules  `Makefile' uses of transforming names

Running configure Scripts

13.1 Basic Installation  Instructions for typical cases
13.2 Compilers and Options  Selecting compilers and optimization
13.3 Compiling For Multiple Architectures  Compiling for multiple architectures at once
13.4 Installation Names  Installing in different directories
13.5 Optional Features  Selecting optional features
13.6 Specifying the System Type  Specifying the system type
13.7 Sharing Defaults  Setting site-wide defaults for configure
13.8 Defining Variables  Specifying the compiler etc.
13.9 configure Invocation  Changing how configure runs

Obsolete Constructs

15.1 Obsolete `config.status' Invocation  Different calling convention
15.2 `acconfig.h'  Additional entries in `config.h.in'
15.3 Using autoupdate to Modernize `configure.ac'  Automatic update of `configure.ac'
15.4 Obsolete Macros  Backward compatibility macros
15.5 Upgrading From Version 1  Tips for upgrading your files
15.6 Upgrading From Version 2.13  Some fresher tips

Upgrading From Version 1

15.5.1 Changed File Names  Files you might rename
15.5.2 Changed Makefiles  New things to put in `Makefile.in'
15.5.3 Changed Macros  Macro calls you might replace
15.5.4 Changed Results  Changes in how to check test results
15.5.5 Changed Macro Writing  Better ways to write your own macros

Upgrading From Version 2.13

15.6.1 Changed Quotation  Broken code which used to work
15.6.2 New Macros  Interaction with foreign macros
15.6.3 Hosts and Cross-Compilation  Bugward compatibility kludges
15.6.4 AC_LIBOBJ vs. LIBOBJS  LIBOBJS is a forbidden token
15.6.5 AC_FOO_IFELSE vs. AC_TRY_FOO  A more generic scheme for testing sources

Generating Test Suites with Autotest

16.1 Using an Autotest Test Suite  Autotest and the user
16.2 Writing `testsuite.at'  Autotest macros
16.3 Running testsuite Scripts  Running testsuite scripts
16.4 Making testsuite Scripts  Using autom4te to create testsuite

Using an Autotest Test Suite

16.1.1 testsuite Scripts  The concepts of Autotest
16.1.2 Autotest Logs  Their contents

Frequent Autoconf Questions, with answers

17.1 Distributing configure Scripts  Distributing configure scripts
17.2 Why Require GNU M4?  Why not use the standard M4?
17.3 How Can I Bootstrap?  Autoconf and GNU M4 require each other?
17.4 Why Not Imake?  Why GNU uses configure instead of Imake
17.5 How Do I #define Installation Directories?  Passing datadir to program
17.6 What is `autom4te.cache'?  What is it? Can I remove it?

History of Autoconf

18.1 Genesis  Prehistory and naming of configure
18.2 Exodus  The plagues of M4 and Perl
18.3 Leviticus  The priestly code of portability arrives
18.4 Numbers  Growth and contributors
18.5 Deuteronomy  Approaching the promises of easy configuration

Copying This Manual

A.1 GNU Free Documentation License  License for copying this manual

Indices

B.1 Environment Variable Index  Index of environment variables used
B.2 Output Variable Index  Index of variables set in output files
B.3 Preprocessor Symbol Index  Index of C preprocessor symbols defined
B.4 Autoconf Macro Index  Index of Autoconf macros
B.5 M4 Macro Index  Index of M4, M4sugar, and M4sh macros
B.6 Autotest Macro Index  Index of Autotest macros
B.7 Program and Function Index  Index of those with portability problems
B.8 Concept Index  General index


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