GNU's Who Administrivia and Copyright Other GPL'ed Software What Is the FSF? What Is Copyleft? What Is Linux? What Is a GNU/Linux system? What Is the Hurd? Become a Patron of the FSF Free Software Redistributors Donate Help from Free Software Companies New European Distributor Emacspeak GNUs Flashes Display Ghostscript Project Replacing Qt Help the Translation Project GNU & Other Free Software in Japan Forthcoming GNUs Free Software Support GNU Software Configuring GNU Software GNU Software Currently Available Program/Package Cross Reference The Deluxe Distribution CD-ROMs Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs What do the Different Prices Mean? Why Is There an Individual Price? Is There a Maximum Price? January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM Source Code CD-ROMs July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs CD-ROM Subscription Service GNU Documentation How to Get GNU Software FSF T-shirt Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems Project GNU Wish List Thank GNUs Donations Translate Into Free Software Cygnus Matches Donations! Free Software Foundation Order Form Address Page
Thomas Bushnell, n/BSG (whose name used to be Michael) and Miles Bader work on the Hurd. Karl Heuer enhances Emacs and is working on an accounting package, and with Ian Murdock is in charge of making Deluxe Distributions. Jim Blandy is working on GUILE, GNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension, and Teak, a desktop interface.
Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects.
Prof. Masayuki Ida is our Vice President for Japan. He is organizing Japanese seminars, working with GNU's friends in Japan, etc. Brian Youmans is our Distribution Manager and handles online inquiries. Paul Wendt has joined the FSF to handle the phones and much of the administrative work in the office. Carol Botteron, Robert J. Chassell, Tami Friedman, Peter H. Salus, and Len Tower Jr. have left the FSF. Tami continues to volunteer for GNU as our Administrivia Coordinator. We thank them for their hard work.
Volunteers Steve Morningthunder and Alex Bernadin help to coordinate all of the many volunteers in the GNU Project. Volunteer Paul van Gool coordinates our volunteer system administrators. Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Volunteer Phil Nelson works on our Web site.
Written & Edited by
Illustrations by Etienne Suvasa.
Japanese Edition by Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813
The GNU's Bulletin is published at (approximately) the end of January and the end of July each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the top menu. Enclosing $1.00 in U.S. Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)
Copyright (C) 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice.
We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently
distribute. FTP the file
`/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host
(see section How to Get GNU Software).
Please let us know of additional programs we should mention.
We don't list Emacs Lisp Libraries;
archive.cis.ohio-state.edu has a list of those you can FTP
in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-noo") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.
The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have three specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code; third, the freedom to distribute a modified version and thus help build the community. Free software means you can study the source and learn how such programs are written; it means you can port it or improve it, and then share your work with others.
If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a distribution fee or you may give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GNU General Public License; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.
Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.
The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Gerald J. Sussman and Harold Abelson, Directors.
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.
We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.
Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a GPLed kernel that
implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD extensions.
GNU/Linux systems are now available for Alpha &
machines with one of these buses: ISA, VLB, EISA, PCI.
An m68k port is in
testing (it runs on high end Amiga & Atari computers).
MIPS, PowerPC & Sparc ports are being worked on.
FTP it from
tsx-11.mit.edu in `/pub/linux' (USA)
ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/Linux' (Europe).
firstname.lastname@example.org about mailing lists. See USENET
comp.os.linux.misc, for news.
by Richard M. Stallman
A GNU/Linux system is a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.
Linux is a kernel, compatible with the Unix kernel, written by Linus Torvalds. There are several different distributions available via FTP and CD-ROM. None are distributed by the FSF at this time.
GNU is a Unix-like operating system. We started the GNU Project in 1984 with the aim of bringing such a system into existence. A Unix-like operating system consists of many components; we had to obtain each of the important components somehow. The job was so large that many of the people who sympathized with the goal were discouraged from attempting it, but we decided we would reach the goal no matter how long it took.
We found some components already available as free software--for example, the X Window System & TeX. Naturally we decided to use them, since the job was big enough even with short cuts. We got other components by helping to convince their developers to free them--for example, the Berkeley network utilities.
The rest of components, we had to write. These include Emacs, the GNU C & C++ compilers & libraries, Bash, Ghostscript, Groff, & many others.
All of these various components--those we wrote, those we helped make free, and those we found already available--together make up the GNU system.
Until recently, users couldn't run the GNU system, because one part (the kernel; see section What Is the Hurd?) was not yet ready. (We made the first test release in August 1996.) However, for a few years now, it has been possible to put together the Linux kernel and the almost-complete GNU system, resulting in a complete Unix-like free operating system suitable for actual use.
While commonly referred to as "Linux systems", we prefer the term "Linux-based GNU systems," or "GNU/Linux systems" for short, since these systems are mostly the same as the GNU system. This gives Linus credit for the kernel that he wrote, while indicating that these systems as a whole are variants of the GNU system.
We also occasionally use the term "GNU/Hurd system" to emphasize that we mean a version of the GNU system which uses the Hurd rather than Linux.
We think it is proper for the GNU Project to get credit for making the free Unix-like system that it set out for a decade ago. But there is a more important reason for friends of GNU to use names like "Linux-based GNU system" instead of "Linux system." This is to help spread the GNU Project's philosophical idea: that there is ethical importance in freeing users to share software and cooperate in improving it; that free software belongs to a community, and people who benefit from the community should feel a moral obligation to help build the community when they have a chance.
When users install a system which they call "Linux," they can easily miss ever seeing the GNU idea--or feel that it only indirectly touches on them and what they are doing. And if the GNU idea is not widely known or not taken seriously, it will not persuade as many people to write new free software.
A conference was held this year on the topic of developing "Linux applications". This conference was about using the GNU system, but the conference announcement did not mention the word GNU. Instead of encouraging users to write more free software, it did just the opposite. It included a panel entitled, "Licenses and licensing--I don't want to give away my application!!!" (The three `!' marks appeared in the announcement).
Of course, these conference organizers are entitled to state their views. But it would be harder for these views to gather support if the conference attendees recognized the operating system under discussion as a variant of the GNU system, and thought about these views in contrast with the GNU philosophy.
So please help make people aware of this relationship--please use "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux" when you talk about a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.
The Hurd is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing microkernel developed at CMU. The Hurd and Mach together form the kernel of the GNU/Hurd operating system. The GNU C Library implements the Unix "system call" interface by sending messages to Hurd servers as appropriate.
The Hurd allows users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design. The Hurd is thus like other expandable GNU software, e.g. Emacs and GUILE.
Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists.
We have made several test releases of the Hurd. See section GNUs Flashes, for recent progress.
We need help with significant Hurd-related projects.
Experienced system programmers who are interested should send mail
email@example.com. Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C
Library to new systems is another way to help.
You can obtain test releases of the Hurd from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software) along with complete binaries for an i386 GNU system. We will not be distributing these on CD-ROM until they are more stable.
The Free Software Foundation wants to acknowledge its supporters and contributors in a more visible fashion. You can now become an "official" supporter of the FSF. See section Thank GNUs, for the names of people and organizations who have done so.
The Free Software Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization; all contributions are tax deductible in the US.
The French redistributor PACT has agreed to donate $1.00 for each GNU/Linux CD that they sell.
Red Hat Software has agreed to donate $1.00 to the FSF for every copy of Red Hat Archives sold. They have also added a GNU logo to the back of that CD with the words "Supports the Free Software Foundation".
The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF" to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know just how much of the price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor.
The Sun Users Group Deutschland has made it even clearer: their CD says, "Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF." We thank them for their contribution to our efforts.
Kyoto Micro Computer of Japan regularly gives us 10% of their GNU-related sales.
Mr. Hiroshi, Mr. Kojima, and the other authors of the Linux Primer in Japan have donated money from the sales of their book.
Infomagic has continued to make sizable donations to the FSF.
At the request of author Arnold Robbins, Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. continues to donate 3% of their gross revenues from selling Effective AWK Programming. We would also like to acknowledge the many SSC authors who have donated their royalties and fees to the FSF.
In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.
You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).
The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.
To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.
Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler or to Mach contribute more; major new features & programs contribute the most.
By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.
When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) supports the FSF by purchasing Deluxe Distribution packages on a regular basis. In this way they transfer 10% of their income to the FSF. Listing them here is our way of thanking them.
Wingnut Project Software Research Associates, Inc. 1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102, Japan Phone: (+81-3)3234-2611 Fax: (+81-3)3942-5174 E-mail:
The Free Software Foundation now has a European distribution agent: GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium.
Users in European Community countries can order GNU manuals, CD-ROMs and T-shirts through this distribution agent, and get a lower overall price (due to reduced shipping costs) and quicker delivery. Their address is
GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium Sportstaat 28 9000 Gent Belgium Phone: +32-9-2227542 Fax: +32-9-2224976 Email:
Emacspeak is a speech output extension to Emacs. You listen instead of look. It allows someone who cannot see to work well with a computer.
T. V. Raman, who created Emacspeak, wrote it to use different voice personalities for different types of text: a WWW link sounds different from quoted text which in turn sounds different from regular text.
When you take a tty driver and make it speak (this is essentially what all PC screenreaders under DOS do), all you get to hear is the contents of the display; you're responsible for figuring out why it's there.
So, for instance, when a calendar application lays out the calendar to produce a well-formatted tabular display, it looks nice; but the blind user hears "1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 ..." or some such garbage; believe me; I've used such an interface for the last five years. So now you've got to figure out that for instance 27 April is a Thursday by checking which screen column the figure "27" appears in.
Emacspeak has a completely different approach to speech enabling Emacs apps (which as you know are numerous). Emacspeak looks at the program environment and data of the applications, and speaks the information the way it should be spoken. So in the case of the calendar, you hear "Thursday, April 27, 1995".
This means you do not need to look at a display to read news or mail, browse the Web, use Calc, write code or a novel.
In addition to appropriately different voices, Emacspeak provides non-speech auditory cues so you don't lose track of what is going on.
Emacspeak is in `ftp://ftp.cs.cornell.edu/pub/raman/emacspeak' or `http://cs.cornell.edu/home/raman/emacspeak'.
The Free Software Foundation and Net Community are seeking to raise $11,000 to fund the completion of Display Ghostscript--that is, extending Ghostscript to support the Display Postscript features. So far we have raised $5600, slightly over half of the target.
If you would like to contribute, please send a donation to the Free Software Foundation and state that it is meant for Display Ghostscript.
The GNU Project is looking for volunteers to work on developing a free compatible replacement for the Qt GUI toolkit.
Qt is not free software because its distribution terms are too restrictive. Users do not have the freedom to make changes, or the freedom to release their changes for the community to use--freedoms which are a crucial part of the meaning of free software. Even developing an application program which uses unmodified Qt carries, in some cases, an unacceptable requirement--to notify the owners of Qt.
A secondary consequence of the restrictions on Qt is that linking Qt together with code covered by the GNU GPL violates the GNU GPL, because the combined program is not free software. (It makes no difference whether the linking is done statically or dynamically; either way is creating a combined program which the GPL applies to.)
But Qt is available to run at no charge, and some developers of free applications are starting to make their programs use it.
This a serious problem for developing completely free operating systems. Qt cannot be included in a free operating system, because any system which contains Qt is, by consequence, no longer entirely free software.
If a free application needs Qt in order to run, free operating systems cannot use that application either. We would be legally permitted to use the application itself, and the system could still be free--but including the application without Qt won't be any use.
The only feasible way to make these applications run on free systems is to develop a free substitute for Qt. Hence this project.
To make the goal precise, the new GUI toolkit needs to be mostly compatible with Qt in regard to API. How compatible must it be? Compatible enough that it is easy to make the free applications use it. In other words, this library should be compatible enough to do the job of making the applications run.
This new toolkit does not need to have each and every feature that Qt has. It just needs to have the features that the free applications use and cannot easily do without.
The screen appearance and behavior of the replacement package do not necessarily have to be compatible with Qt. If they are convenient and work well with the applications that use the library, that is good enough.
Please send email to
if you would like to help with this project.
This project will take some time. In the mean time, if you are developing a free application, please do not use Qt. Please use a free GUI toolkit instead.
vera. On the CD-ROMs are full distributions of X11R6.3, Emacs, GCC, and current versions of all other GNU Software. See section GNU Software, for more about these packages.
.pfm(Windows printer metrics) files. The fonts are compatible with Adobe Type Manager and with general Type 1 manipulation tools, as well as with Ghostscript and other Postscript language interpreters.
The fonts are available in `ghostscript-fonts-4.0.tar.gz' on the usual FTP sites.
gawk, fileutils, textutils, shellutils, diffutils, & findutils. Packages for desktop publishing such as Groff and TeX are also included. Taken together, these programs present a coherent set of tools that will make a typical MS-DOS/MS-Windows system much more powerful for any computer-oriented task. All of the programs include complete on-line documentation as well as typeset and ready-to-print manuals. A book that accompanies the CD-ROM explains how to set up the host system for using the software and reading the documentation.
Also being developed are SCSH-compatible system call & Tk interfaces, a module system, dynamic linking support, & a byte-code interpreter. Support for Emacs Lisp & a more C-like language is coming.
GNU is going international! The Translation Project gets users, translators, & maintainers together, so free software will gradually get to speak many native languages. As of April 1997, we have internationalized 27 packages into 16 languages, using 159 translation files; the translation teams have 422 subscribed members.
To complete this Translation Project, we need many people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language as part of "translation teams".
If you want to start a new team, or want more information on existing teams
or other aspects of this project, write
firstname.lastname@example.org. Also see section GNU Software,
for information about
gettext, the tool the Translation
Project uses to help translators and programmers.
email@example.com) and Nobuyuki Hikichi
firstname.lastname@example.org) continue to volunteer for the GNU Project
in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and
distribute it widely, along with the translation of Version 2 of the GNU
General Public License. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the
FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from
`/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. They are working on a formal
translation of the GNU Library General Public License. They also solicit
donations and offer GNU software consulting.
nepoch (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available and widely
used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle
many character sets at once. Its features have been merged into the
principal version of Emacs. See section GNU Software, for more details on MULE.
The FSF does not distribute
nepoch, but MULE is available on the
section July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs.
FTP it from
sh.wide.ad.jp in `/JAPAN/mule', or
etlport.etl.go.jp in `/pub/mule'.
The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation (ISBN 4-938704-02-1) of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and puts the Texinfo source on various bulletin boards, and prints each issue of the Japanese GNU's Bulletin. They also publish Nobuyuki & Mieko's Think GNU (ISBN 4-938704-10-2); this may be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. They also redistribute GNU CD-ROMs at this bookstore:
Shosen Grande 1-3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3295-0011
Portions of Village Center's profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:
Village Center, Inc. 3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3221-3520 URL: `http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/' URL: `http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/gnu.html' for GNU products info handling by Village Center
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese translations of the GNU Make Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X), the Gawk Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9672-8), & the Texinfo Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9684-7), & will print the Japanese GNU Emacs Manual 19.34 & Bison Manual this July. Their address is:
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. Nichibou Bldg. 2F 1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3291-4581
The Japanese mailing list to discuss GPL'ed software and hardware
is no longer active.
if you have any questions about it.
Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; and the Fujitsu FM Towns users group.
It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding
new software. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask
We encourage you to buy our software CDs:
for example, 150 CD-ROM orders at the
corporate rate allow the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more
The Research Institute for Advanced Information Technology (AITEC) releases ICOT Free Software (IFS) and other IFS related software to the public. IFS, which pertains to the fields of parallel processing & knowledge processing, was developed at ICOT in the Fifth Generation Computer Project & its Follow-on Project.
Besides IFS, AITEC recently released as free software many software systems developed by numerous research groups through AITEC's research funding program. Through their Web pages, AITEC releases 20 major IFS programs, 80 other IFS programs, and 22 programs developed through AITEC's FY 1996 research funding program. AITEC will soon release new software systems developed in FY 1997.
As of the end of May 1997, over 5,300 people have accessed AITEC's Web pages, and almost 35,000 IFS files have been transferred since their first release in 1992.
For more information, please see URL `http://www.icot.or.jp/'.
The ImageSearcher is an object-oriented program to search images by
specifying properties of the image itself, without relying on the
name or attributes of the file. It searches focusing on typical color,
average luminance, nine colors, image extent, center spectra, etc.
It runs on VisualWorks 2.5.1 (Smalltalk). As a
result of the "eMMa Project" research sponsored by IPA and SRA
(written by Atsushi Aoki), the source code and documentation are
distributed under the GPL as free software, and are
available via FTP from host
in the file
Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.
e-scapeis a graphical Web browser currently in development. We plan to support CSS1, PNG, tables, and frames. XML support and client-side scripting will likely be added eventually.
gss) is the GNU SQL Server, a multiuser relational DBMS. An alpha release is currently available.
email@example.com. Also see `http://www.gnustep.org/'.
recode(For current status, see section GNU Software) The next
recoderelease should give more flexible control over encodings of charsets, offer MIME conversions, & handle ISO-10646 (Unicode). It will install a library & support files to help work towards internationalizing GNU.
For the second release, volunteers have offered to enhance Teak to browse FTP sites, tar files, etc. We have designed Teak around GUILE, which will simplify Teak, keep its user interface flexible, & allow easy interaction with other GNU programs. Teak's developer, Jim Blandy, also works on GUILE. Jim has put aside Teak to concentrate on GUILE; after enough progress has been made on GUILE, he will be resuming his work on Teak. Why do we call it Teak? "Because Teak makes a mighty fine desktop."
f2c& GCC, see section GNU Software) The GNU Fortran (
g77) front end is stable, but more work is needed to bring its overall packaging, feature set, and performance up to the levels the Fortran community expects. Tasks to be done include: improving documentation and diagnostics; speeding up compilation, especially for large, densely initialized data tables; completing existing support for
INTEGER*8, and similar features; allowing intrinsics in
PARAMETERstatements; and providing debug information on
EQUIVALENCEvariables. We don't know when these things will be done, but hope some will be finished in the coming months. You can speed progress by working on them or by offering funding. A mailing list exists for announcements about
g77. To subscribe, ask
firstname.lastname@example.org. To contact the developer of
g77or get current status, write or finger
Russell Nelson is coordinating the project. Volunteers have entered close
to fifty pages so far, but the project needs more help; to volunteer, send
email@example.com or contact the FSF.
This project provides a way for people without programming skills or money to contribute to the GNU Project.
The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.
The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support & other consulting services. It is `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software), on the World Wide Web at URL `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/prep/service.html', in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the Emacs distribution, & the file `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution. Contact us to get it or to be listed in it. Service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, & questions.
They are also gatewayed into USENET news as our
Both are listed in file
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/MAILINGLISTS' on a GNU FTP host
(see section How to Get GNU Software),
in the file `etc/MAILINGLISTS' in the Emacs distribution,
at URL `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/prep/mailinglists.html'
or request it from either address on
the top menu.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version that helps all users. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user on our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.
When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
All our software is available via FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. We also offer section CD-ROMs, and printed section GNU Documentation, which includes manuals and reference cards. In the articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.
Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed. We
have software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to
patent troubles with
compress, we use another compression program,
You may need to build GNU
make before you build our other software.
make utility at all and some native
VPATH feature essential for using the GNU configure system
to its full extent. The GNU
make sources have a shell script to
make itself on such systems.
We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).
We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types.
Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately.
You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.
For future programs and features, see section Forthcoming GNUs.
Key to cross reference:
BinCD January 1997 Binaries CD-ROM SrcCD July 1997 Source CD-ROMs
[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, section Free Software Foundation Order Form. See section GNU Documentation, for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package.
abuseAlso see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD) The recently-freed program
abuseis a dark, side-scrolling game with Robotron-esque controls: you control your movement with the keyboard and fire & aim with the mouse. You can get more info at `http://crack.com/games/abuse'.
ac(summariize login accounting),
accton(turn accounting on or off),
last(show who has logged in recently),
lastcomm(show which commands have been used),
sa(summarize process accounting),
utmpfile in human-readable format), &
pacctfile in human-readable format).
acmis a LAN-oriented, multiplayer, aerial combat simulation that runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. We are working on a more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics.
m4macro calls. Autoconf requires GNU
m4to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it generates do not.
shand offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history, command-line editing (with Emacs and
vimodes built-in), and the ability to rebind keys via the
readlinelibrary. BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard.
bcis an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision numbers. GNU
bcfollows the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard with several extensions, including multi-character variable names, an
elsestatement, and full Boolean expressions. The RPN calculator
dcis now distributed as part of the same package, but GNU
bcis not implemented as a
ldor GDB) to support many different formats in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to know the details of a particular format. One result is that all programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF. BFD comes with Texinfo source for a manual (not yet published on paper).
At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with packages that use it.
strip. Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library. The GNU assembler,
gas, supports the a29k, Alpha, ARM, D10V, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, M32R, m68k, m88k, MIPS, Matsushita 10200 and 10300, NS32K, PowerPC, RS/6000, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax, and Z8000 CPUs, and attempts to be compatible with many other assemblers for Unix and embedded systems. It can produce mixed C and assembly listings, and includes a macro facility similar to that in some other assemblers. GNU's linker,
ld, supports shared libraries on many systems, emits source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references, and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command Language, which gives control over where segments are placed in memory.
objdumpcan disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above, and can display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from any file format read by BFD.
yacc. Texinfo source for the Bison Manual and reference card are included.
glibc) (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] The GNU C library supports ISO C-1989, ISO C/amendment 1-1995, POSIX 1003.1-1990, POSIX 1003.1b-1993, POSIX 1003.1c-1995 (when the underlying system permits), & most of the functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992. It is nearly compliant with the extended XPG4.2 specification which guarantees upward compatibility with 4.4BSD & many System V functions. When used with the GNU Hurd, the C Library performs many functions of the Unix system calls directly. Mike Haertel has written a fast
mallocwhich wastes less memory than the old GNU version. GNU
stdiolets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few C functions. Two methods for handling translated messages help writing internationalized programs & the user can adopt the environment the program runs in to conform with local conventions. Extended
getoptfunctions are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU utilities. The name lookup functions now are modularized which makes it easier to select the service which is needed for the specific database & the document interface makes it easy to add new services. Texinfo source for the GNU C Library Reference Manual is included (see section GNU Documentation). Previous versions of the GNU C library ran on a large number of systems. The architecture-dependent parts of the C library have not been updated since development on version 2.0 started, so today it runs out of the box only on GNU/Hurd (all platforms GNU/Hurd also runs on) & GNU/Linux (ix86, Alpha, m68k, MIPS, Sparc, PowerPC; work is in progress for ARM). Other architectures will become available again as soon as somebody does the port.
libg++) (BinCD, SrcCD) The GNU C++ library (traditionally called
libg++) includes libstdc++, which implements the library facilities defined by the forthcoming ISO C++ standard. This includes strings, iostream, and various container classes. All of this is templatized.
The package also contains the older libg++ library for backward compatibility, but new programs should avoid using it.
gnuplot, & comes with source for a manual & reference card (see section GNU Documentation).
cfengineis used to maintain site-wide configuration of a heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language. Its appearance is similar to
rdist, but allows many more operations to be performed automatically. See Mark Burgess, "A Site Configuration Engine", Computing Systems, Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask
firstname.lastname@example.org to get a copy).
The program offers a plain terminal interface, one using curses,
and a reasonable X Windows interface
xboard. Best results
are obtained by compiling with GNU C.
Improvements this past year are in the Windows-compatible version, mostly bugfixes.
Stuart Cracraft started the GNU mascot back in the mid-1980's. John Stanback (and innumerable contributors) are responsible for GNU's brain development and its fair play. Acknowledgements for the past year's work are due Conor McCarthy.
Send bugs to
general comments to
Visit the author's Web site at
Play GNU Chess on the Web at
gcl) (SrcCD) GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a compiler & interpreter for Common Lisp. GCL is very portable & extremely efficient on a wide class of applications, & compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem--prover & symbolic algebra systems. GCL supports the CLtL1 specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI standard.
GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler (e.g., GCC). A function with a fixed number of args & one value turns into a C function of the same number of args, returning one value--so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls. Its conservative garbage collector gives great freedom to the C compiler to put Lisp values in registers. It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code & displays source code in an Emacs window. Its profiler (based on the C profiling tools) counts function calls & the time spent in each function.
There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system. It runs in a separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lisp computations or interact with running computations via a windowing interface.
There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). CLX runs with GCL, as does PCL (see "PCL" later in this article).
GCL version 2.2.2 is released under the GNU Library General Public License.
cookprogram provides a mechanism to define these. Some features which distinguish Cook include a strong procedural description language, and fingerprints to supplement file modification time stamps. There is also a
make2cookutility included to ease transition.
cpiois an archive program with all the features of SVR4
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 ustar standard.
mt, a program to position magnetic tapes, is included with
makeand GNATS, respectively.
cxrefis a program that will produce documentation (in LaTeX or HTML) including cross-references from C program source code. It has been designed to work with ANSI C, incorporating K&R, and most popular GNU extensions. The documentation for the subject program is produced from comments in the code that are appropriately formatted. The cross referencing comes from the code itself and requires no extra work.
DejaGnu comes with
expect, which runs scripts to conduct dialogs
diffcompares files showing line-by-line changes in several flexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. The Diffutils package has
cmp. Future plans include support for internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) & some non-Unix PC environments, & a library interface that can be used by other free software.
flex, & Binutils. Full source code is provided. It needs at least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512K of RAM to use. It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation,
himem.sys, VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), & DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI). Version 2 was released in Feb. 1996, & needs a DPMI environment; a free DPMI server is included.
WWW at `http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/' or
`/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/' (or a SimTel mirror site).
to join a DJGPP users mailing list.
dldis a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program with the
dldlibrary allows you to dynamically load object files into the running binary.
dldsupports a.out object types on the following platforms: Convex C-Series (BSD), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Linux), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), Sun-3 (SunOS 3 & 4), Sun-4 (SunOS 4), & VAX (Ultrix).
doschk(SrcCD) This program is a utility to help software developers ensure that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with 14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3 character filenames.
edis the standard text editor. It is line-oriented and can be used interactively or in scripts.
enscriptis an upwardly-compatible replacement for the Adobe
enscriptprogram. It formats ASCII files (outputting in Postscript) and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the printer.
esis an extensible shell (based on
rc) with first-class functions, lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e., functions can return values other than just numbers).
es's extensibility comes from the ability to modify and extend the shell's built-in services, such as path searching and redirection. Like
rc, it is great for both interactive use and scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are much less baroque than the C and Bourne shells.
f2cAlso see "Fortran" below & in section Forthcoming GNUs. (SrcCD)
f2cconverts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be compiled with GCC or G++. Get bug fixes by FTP from site
netlib.bell-labs.comor by email from
email@example.com. For a summary, see the file `/netlib/f2c/readme.gz'.
ffcallis a C library for implementing foreign function calls in embedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible. It allows C functions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be called or emulated (callbacks).
findis frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on them. Also included are
locate, which scans a database for file names that match a pattern, and
xargs, which applies a command to a list of files.
flex(BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
flexis a replacement for the
flexwas written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates far more efficient scanners than
lexdoes. Sources for the Flex Manual and reference card are included (see section GNU Documentation).
g77) Also see section Forthcoming GNUs (BinCD, SrcCD) GNU Fortran (
g77), developed by Craig Burley, is available for public beta testing on the Internet. For now,
g77produces code that is mostly object-compatible with
f2c& uses the same run-time library (
gawkis upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of
awk. It also provides several useful extensions not found in other
awkimplementations. Texinfo source for the The GNU Awk User's Guide comes with the software (see section GNU Documentation).
gcalis a program for printing calendars. It displays different styled calendar sheets, eternal holiday lists, and fixed date warning lists.
object, but see "GNUstep" in section Forthcoming GNUs.) G++ seeks to be compliant with the ANSI C++ language standard.
GCC is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs many
allocation, common sub-expression elimination (CSE) (including a certain
amount of CSE between basic blocks -- though not all the supported machine
descriptions provide for scheduling or delay slots), invariant code motion
from loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation, copy
propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursion
elimination, integration of inline functions & frame pointer elimination,
instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function
optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, the ability to assign
attributes to instructions, & many local optimizations automatically deduced
from the machine description.
GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type
int). It supports extended floating point (type
long double) on
the 68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional
C, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal gotos,
& taking the address of a label).
GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in these formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF.
GCC generates code for many CPUs, including the a29k, Alpha, ARM, AT&T, DSP1610, Clipper, Convex cN, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, i370, i860, i960, MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS/6000, SH, SPUR, Tahoe, VAX, & we32k.
Position-independent code is generated for the Clipper, Hitachi H8/300, HP--PA (1.0 & 1.1), i386/i486/Pentium, m68k, m88k, SPARC, & SPARClite.
Operating systems supported include: GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, ACIS, AIX, AOS, BSD, Clix, Concentrix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, FreeBSD, Genix, HP-UX, Irix, ISC, Luna, LynxOS, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS, NeXTStep, OS/2, OSF, OSF-Rose, RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, System/370, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS, & Windows/NT.
Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as easy as building a native compiler.
Texinfo source for the Using and Porting GNU CC manual is included with GCC (see section GNU Documentation).
GDB can debug both C & C++, & will work with executables
made by many different compilers; but, C++ debugging will have
some limitations if you do not use GCC.
GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has GDB mode as an
interface. Two X interfaces (not distributed or maintained by the FSF)
gdbtk (FTP it from
ftp.cygnus.com in directory
xxgdb (FTP it from
Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, which
allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file
formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF). Other features include a rich command
language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints
(breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes).
GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which
includes simulators for the
GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB targets a platform
means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB can
host a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot
necessarily debug native programs.
gdbmis the GNU replacement for the traditional
ndbmlibraries. It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing.
gdbmdoes not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its Unix and BSD counterparts).
geomviewSee `http://www.geom.umn.edu/software/geomview' (SrcCD)
geomviewis an interactive geometry viewing program, for Unix systems with Motif, using X, GL, or OpenGL graphics. It allows multiple independently controllable objects and cameras. External programs may drive desired aspects of the viewer, e.g. loading changing geometry or controlling motion, while allowing interactive mouse-and-GUI control of everything else. Controllable features include motion, appearance (wireframe, shading, lighting and material properties), mouse-based selection, snapshoting (PPM or SGI image, Postscript, and RenderMan formats), display in hyperbolic and spherical spaces, and projection from higher dimensions. Includes converters to display Mathematica and Maple 3-D graphics, and limited conversion to/from VRML.
gettextAlso see section Help the Translation Project (SrcCD) The GNU
gettexttool set has everything maintainers need to internationalize a package's user messages. Once a package has been internationalized,
gettext's many tools help translators localize messages to their native language and automate handling the translation files.
gforthis a fast, portable implementation of the ANS Forth language.
The current version of GNU Ghostscript, 3.53, includes a Postscript Level 2 interpreter and a PDF 1.1 interpreter (except for encryption). Significant new features include the ability to convert PDF to Postscript. Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript and PDF languages by writing directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files for printing later or manipulating with other graphics programs.
Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also runs on MS-DOS, MS Windows, OS/2, OpenVMS, and Mac OS (native on both 68K and PowerPC) (but please do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use these operating systems).
firstname.lastname@example.org, created Ghostview, a previewer for multi-page files with an X Window interface. Ghostview & Ghostscript work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscript draws in it.
A major new release, version 2, came out in Spring '96. Compared to previous versions, it is much faster, contains lots of new functions, & has support for arbitrary precision floating-point numbers.
cs.nyu.eduand various mirror sites in `/pub/gnat'. SGI, DEC, and Siemens Nixdorf have chosen GNU Ada 95 as the Ada compiler for some of their systems. GNAT is maintained by Ada Core Technologies. For more information, see `http://www.gnat.com'.
gnussl) (SrcCD) GNUMATH is a library (
gnussl) that simplifies scientific programming in C & C++. Its focus is on problems that can be solved by a straight-forward application of numerical linear algebra. It also handles plotting. It is in beta release; it is expected to grow more versatile & offer a wider scope in time.
gnuplotis an interactive program for plotting mathematical expressions and data. It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3 dimensions). It was neither written nor named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence. Various GNU programs use
gnuservis an enhanced version of Emacs'
emacsclientprogram. It lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files or evaluate arbitrary Emacs Lisp constructs from another process.
gpcAlso see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD)
gpcis the GNU Pascal Compiler.
fgrep, which find lines that match entered patterns. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
troff, & includes:
mmmacros; & drivers for Postscript, TeX
dviformat, the LaserJet 4 series of printers, and typewriter-like devices. Groff's
mmmacro package is almost compatible with the DWB
mmmacros with several extensions. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
memacros and an enhanced version of the X11
xditviewpreviewer. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.7.2 or later. Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo documentation, a
picpreprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
pm(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2; ask
email@example.com to get a copy), and an ASCII output class for
picwith Texinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read the documentation provided with Groff can be sent to
guavacis a new free compiler for the Java language.
gzipcan expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented algorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It also expands files compressed with System V's
hello(SrcCD) The GNU
helloprogram produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU General Public License, users are free to share and change it.
hellois also a good example of a program that meets the GNU coding standards. Like any truly useful program,
hellocontains a built-in mail reader.
hp2xxreads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont, various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing only) for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, & HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11 (Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).
indentformats C source code into the GNU, BSD, K&R, or your own special indentation style. GNU
indentis more robust & provides more functionality than other such programs, including handling C++ comments. It runs on Unix, Windows, VMS, ATARI and other systems.
The next version which formats C++ source code will soon be released.
Version 1.3a is more portable than previous releases: Inetutils now works on GNU/Linux and SunOS/Solaris systems, although it still requires a system with some degree of BSD compatibility. This release also has many security holes plugged.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media. You can FTP it, or visit the Web site `http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/JACAL.html'.
lessis a display paginator similar to
pg, but with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most pagers lack.
m4is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor. It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g., handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).
m4also has built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.
make(BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] GNU
makesupports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features of the BSD and System V versions of
make, and runs on MS-DOS, AmigaDOS, VMS, & Windows NT or 95, as well as all Unix-compatible systems. GNU extensions include long options, parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, & powerful text manipulation functions. Source for the Make Manual comes with the program (see section GNU Documentation).
mc) (SrcCD) The Midnight Commander is a user friendly & colorful Unix file manager & shell, useful to novice & guru alike. It has a built-in virtual file system that manipulates files inside tar files or files on remote machines using the FTP protocol. This mechanism is extendable with external Unix programs.
mkisofsis a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system. It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binary image which corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to a block device.
It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol
records of the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol
(used to further describe the files in an ISO 9660 file system to a Unix
host; it provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,
permissions, and device nodes).
mkisofs program is often used with
works by taking the image that
mkisofs generates and
driving a cdwriter drive to actually burn the disk.
cdwrite works under
GNU/Linux, and supports popular cdwriter drives.
Older versions of
were included with older versions of
sunsite.unc.edu has the latest version:
mtoolsis a collection of utilities to access MS-DOS disks from Unix without mounting them. It supports Windows 95 style long file names, OS/2 Xdf disks, ZIP/JAZ disks and 2m disks (store up to 1992k on a high density 3 1/2 disk).
muttAlso see `http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~me/mutt' (SrcCD) Mutt is a small but very powerful mail client: a hybrid, or "mutt," consisting of features from various other curses-based e-mail clients.
nviis an implementation of the
viUnix editor. It has all the functionality of the original
openmode & the
lispedit option. Enhancements include multiple buffers, command-line editing & path completion, integrated Perl5 & Tcl scripting languages, Cscope support & tag stacks, 8-bit data support, infinite file/line lengths, infinite undo, language catalogs, incremental search, extended regular expressions, and security fixes. It uses Autoconf for configuration and runs on any Unix-like system.
libgnustep-base) has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C objects written by Andrew McCallum & others. It includes collection classes for maintaining groups of objects, I/O streams, coders for formatting objects & C types to streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects (remote object messaging), string classes, invocations, notifications, event loops, timers, exceptions, pseudo-random number generators, & more. It has the base classes for the GNUstep project; all but a few of them have already been written. Send queries & bugs to
firstname.lastname@example.org. See "GNUstep" in section Forthcoming GNUs.
gnuplot. Version 2.0.9 of Octave was released in July. It includes support for dynamically linked functions, user-defined data types, many new functions, & a completely revised manual. Octave works on most Unix systems, OS/2, and Windows NT/95.
p2cis Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator. It inputs many dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, etc.) & generates readable, maintainable, portable C.
diff's output to a set of original files to generate the modified versions. Recent versions of GNU
patchcan update binary files, and can remove files and directories when they become obsolete.
perl(SrcCD) Larry Wall's
perlcombines the features & capabilities of C,
sh, and provides interfaces to the Unix system calls & many C library routines.
phttpdis a high speed World Wide Web server using multithreading, memory mapping, and dynamic linking to achieve its goals of high speed, scalability, and light weight. It is currently supported only on Solaris (SunOS5).
libplot, a subroutine library for producing 2-D device-independent vector graphics, and
graph, a sample application for plotting 2-D scientific data that is built on top of
libplot. Supported devices include X Window System displays, Postscript devices, and Tektronix emulators.
xfigoutput format, which can be edited with the free graphics editor
xfig, is also supported. The Postscript output format includes directives which allow it to be edited with the
idrawgraphics editor. Included with
spline, a program that uses splines in tension to interpolate data, and
ode, an application that will numerically integrate a system of ordinary differential equations.
ptxis our version of the traditional permuted index generator. It handles multiple input files at once, has TeX compatible output, & outputs readable KWIC (KeyWords In Context) indexes without using
nroff. Plans are to merge this package into
It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.
rcis a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing scripts. It inspired the shell
diff, RCS can handle binary files (8-bit data, executables, object files, etc). RCS now conforms to GNU configuration standards & to POSIX 1003.1b-1993. Also see the CVS item above.
readline(BinCD, SrcCD) Brian Fox wrote the
readlinelibrary one weekend in 1987, so that the FSF would have a clean Emacs-like line editing facility that could be used across multiple programs. After installing it in Bash, he went on to test the reusability of the code by adding it to GDB, and then later, to the GNU FTP client. The library supplies many entry points--the simplest interface gives any program the ability to store a history of input lines, and gives the end user a complete Emacs-like (or vi-like) editing capability over the input, simply by replacing calls to
getswith calls to
recodeAlso see section Forthcoming GNUs (SrcCD) GNU
recodeconverts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or outputs nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported.
regex(SrcCD) The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for internationalization features. It is included in many GNU programs which do regular expression matching & is available separately. An alternate regular expression package,
rx, is faster than
regexin many cases; we were planning to replace
rx, but it is not certain this will happen.
rsyncis a replacement for
rcpthat has many more features.
rsyncuses the "rsync algorithm", which provides a very fast method for synchronizing large remote files, sending only the differences across the link. It does not require both versions of a file to be local in order to compute the differences. A technical report describing the rsync algorithm is included with the package.
rx(SrcCD) Tom Lord has written
rx, a new regular expression library which is generally faster and more correct than the older GNU
screenis a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens" (ttys) on a single character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) functions, including color. Arbitrary keyboard input translation is also supported.
screensessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal type. Output in detached sessions is saved for later viewing.
sedis a stream-oriented version of
ed. It comes with the
sharmakes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services;
unsharhelps unpack these shell archives after reception.
uudecodeare POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of programs which transform files into a format that can be safely transmitted across a 7-bit ASCII link.
GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features & similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of partial board patterns can be introduced to help the program play toward specific opening patterns. It has both character and X display interfaces.
It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.
sendmail. It uses a much simpler configuration format than
sendmailand is designed to be setup with minimal effort.
spellis a clone of standard Unix
spell, implemented as a wrapper to
stowmanages the installation of multiple software packages, keeping them separate while making them appear (via symbolic links) to be installed in the same place. For example, Emacs can be installed in `/usr/local/stow/emacs' and Perl in `/usr/local/stow/perl', permitting each to be administered separately, while with
stowthey will both appear to be installed in `/usr/local'.
tar(BinCD, SrcCD) GNU
tarincludes multi-volume support, the ability to archive sparse files, compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features that allow
tarto be used for incremental and full backups. GNU
taruses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 ustar format which is different from the final version. This will be corrected in the future.
tputis a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal capabilities.
tabsis a program to set hardware terminal tab settings.
texinfmt.el) which generate printed manuals, plain ASCII text, & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), & can read online Info documents; Info files can also be read in Emacs. Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp & standalone programs written in C or as shell scripts. Texinfo mode for Emacs enables easy editing & updating of Texinfo files. Source for the Texinfo Manual is included (see section GNU Documentation).
libtiff, is a library for manipulating Tagged Image File Format files, a commonly used bitmap graphics format.
Many documented Forth libraries are available, e.g. top-down parsing, multi-threads, & object-oriented programming.
timereports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time used by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, page faults, etc.
ucblogoimplements the classic teaching language, Logo.
unitsGNU `units' converts between different units of measurement, such as miles/gallon to km/liter. (It can only handle multiplicative scale changes, so it cannot convert Celsius to Fahrenheit though it could convert temperature differences between those temperatures scales.)
g(all window & packet sizes),
e, Zmodem, & two new bidirectional (
j) protocols. With a BSD sockets library, it can make TCP connections. With TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections. Source is included for a manual (not yet published by the FSF).
wdiffis a front-end to GNU
diff. It compares two files, finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It has many output formats and works well with terminals and pagers.
wdiffis very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs have been refilled. Plans are to merge this package into
Wgetnon-interactively retrieves files from the WWW using HTTP & FTP. It is suitable for use in shell scripts.
windows32is a set of header files & import libraries that can be used by GNU tools for compiling & linking programs to be run on Windows NT/95.
While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM.
xboardis a graphical chessboard for X Windows. It can serve as a user interface to the Crafty or GNU chess programs, the Internet Chess Servers, e-mail correspondence chess, or games saved in Portable Game Notation.
xgrabscis a screen capture program similar to
xwdbut with a graphical user interface, more ways of selecting the part of the screen to capture, & different types of output: Postscript, color Postscript, xwd, bitmap, pixmap, & puzzle.
xinfois an X-windows program for reading Info files. It uses a special widget, which is available for use in other programs.
xmcdis an X11-based CD player utility and
cdais a command-line driven, non-graphical CD audio player.
xmcdis developed to use the OSF/Motif API (version 1.1 and later) and can also be used with LessTif, the free Motif clone. In its evolution over the past few years,
xmcdhas established itself as the premier CD player application for the X window system with an attractive, easy-to-use user interface. It is feature-rich and runs on virtually all of the popular Unix and OpenVMS platforms. It also supports the widest array of CD-ROM and CD-R devices, including some older SCSI-1 drives that do not work with other CD player applications. The remote CD database query feature fully utilizes the Internet and taps on a vast repository of CD artists/titles, track titles and other information. Multi-disc changers are also supported. Like many other CD player applications,
xmcdsupports a CD database of disc and track titles and other information. A distinguishing feature of
xmcdis the ability to connect to a remote CD database server to query this information. Many public Internet CD database servers have been established around the world for this purpose, and
xmcdalso allows the user to submit new CD entries to the master database.
xshogiis a graphical Shogi (Japanese Chess) board for the X Window System. It can serve as a user interface to GNU Shogi, as a referee for games between two humans, or as a client for the Internet Shogi Server.
Yglemulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under X11 on most platforms with an ANSI C compiler (including GCC). It has most two-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device & query routines, double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, Fortran bindings, etc.
openfunction (and other system call functions) in the shared library.
Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in. You can FTP the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software).
* 4dview geomview * a2p perl * a2x xopt * ac bsd44 * accton bsd44 * ackpfd phttpd * acl bsd44 * acm acm * acms acm * addbbox geomview * addftinfo Groff * adventure bsd44 * afm2tfm TeX * aid ID Utils * amd bsd44 * ansitape bsd44 * AnswerGarden xopt * apply bsd44 * appres xreq * apropos bsd44 * ar Binutils * arithmetic bsd44 * arp bsd44 * atc bsd44 * authwn WN * autoconf Autoconf * autoheader Autoconf * automake Automake * autoreconf Autoconf * autoscan Autoconf * autoupdate Autoconf * auto_box xopt * auto_box xreq * b2m Emacs * backgammon bsd44 * bad144 bsd44 * badsect bsd44 * banner bsd44 * basename Shellutils * bash BASH * battlestar bsd44 * bc bc * bcd bsd44 * bdes bsd44 * bdftops Ghostscript * beach_ball xopt * beach_ball xreq * beach_ball2 xopt * bibtex TeX * biff bsd44 * bison Bison * bitmap xreq * boggle bsd44 * bpltobzr Fontutils * bugfiler bsd44 * buildhash Ispell * bzrto Fontutils * c++ GCC * c++filt Binutils * c2ph perl * ca100 xopt * caesar bsd44 * cal bsd44 * calendar bsd44 * canfield bsd44 * cat Textutils * cbars wdiff * cc GCC * cc1 GCC * cc1obj GCC * cc1plus GCC * cccp GCC * cdwrite mkisofs * cfengine cfengine * cgi Spinner * charspace Fontutils * checknr bsd44 * chess bsd44 * chflags bsd44 * chgrp Fileutils * ching bsd44 * chmod Fileutils * chown Fileutils * chpass bsd44 * chroot bsd44 * ci RCS * cksum Textutils * cktyps g77 * clisp CLISP * clri bsd44 * cmail xboard * cmmf TeX * cmodext xopt * cmp Diffutils * co RCS * col bsd44 * colcrt bsd44 * colrm bsd44 * column bsd44 * comm Textutils * compress bsd44 * comsat bsd44 * connectd bsd44 * cp Fileutils * cpicker xopt * cpio cpio * cpp GCC * cppstdin perl * cribbage bsd44 * crock xopt * csh bsd44 * csplit Textutils * ctags Emacs * ctwm xopt * cu UUCP * cut Textutils * cvs CVS * cvscheck CVS * cvtmail Emacs * cxterm xopt * d Fileutils * date Shellutils * dc bc * dd Fileutils * ddd DDD * defid ID Utils * delatex TeX * demangle Binutils * descend CVS * detex TeX * df Fileutils * dhtppd phttpd * diff Diffutils * diff3 Diffutils * diffpp enscript * digest-doc Emacs * dipress bsd44 * dir Fileutils * dircolors Fileutils * dirname Shellutils * dish xopt * disklabel bsd44 * diskpart bsd44 * dld dld * dm bsd44 * dmesg bsd44 * doschk doschk * dox xopt * du Fileutils * dump bsd44 * dump mkisofs * dumpfs bsd44 * dvi2tty TeX * dvicopy TeX * dvips TeX * dvitype TeX * ecc ecc * echo Shellutils * ed ed * edit-pr GNATS * editres xreq * edquota bsd44 * eeprom bsd44 * egrep grep * eid ID Utils * emacs Emacs * emacsclient Emacs * emacsserver Emacs * emacstool Emacs * emu xopt * enscript enscript * env Shellutils * eqn Groff * error bsd44 * es es * esdebug es * etags Emacs * ex nvi * example geomview * exicyclog Exim * exigrep Exim * exim Exim * eximon Exim * eximon Exim * eximstats Exim * exinext Exim * exiwhat Exim * expand Textutils * expect DejaGnu * expr Shellutils * exterm xopt * f2c f2c * factor bsd44 * fakemail Emacs * false Shellutils * fastboot bsd44 * fax2ps HylaFAX * faxalter HylaFAX * faxanswer HylaFAX * faxcover HylaFAX * faxd HylaFAX * faxd.recv HylaFAX * faxmail HylaFAX * faxquit HylaFAX * faxrcvd HylaFAX * faxrm HylaFAX * faxstat HylaFAX * fc f2c * fdraw xopt * ffe g77 * fgrep grep * fid ID Utils * file bsd44 * find Findutils * find2perl perl * finger Finger * fingerd Finger * fish bsd44 * fixfonts Texinfo * fixinc.svr4 GCC * fixincludes GCC * flex flex * flex++ flex * flythrough geomview * fmt bsd44 * fnid ID Utils * fold Textutils * font2c Ghostscript * fontconvert Fontutils * forth Tile Forth * forthicon Tile Forth * forthtool Tile Forth * fortune bsd44 * fpr bsd44 * freq Ispell * freqtbl Ispell * from bsd44 * fsck bsd44 * fsplit bsd44 * fstat bsd44 * ftp bsd44 * ftp Inetutils * ftpd bsd44 * ftpd Inetutils * g++ GCC * gas Binutils * gawk GAWK * gcal gcal * gcc GCC * gcore bsd44 * gdb GDB * genclass libg++ * geomstuff geomview * gettext gettext * getty bsd44 * gftodvi TeX * gftopk TeX * gftype TeX * ghostview Ghostview * gid ID Utils * ginsu geomview * git GIT * gitaction GIT * gitcmp GIT * gitkeys GIT * gitmatch GIT * gitmount GIT * gitps GIT * gitredir GIT * gitrgrep GIT * gitview GIT * gitwipe GIT * gn GN * gnans Gnans * gnanslator Gnans * gnats GNATS * gnuchess Chess * gnuchessc Chess * gnuchessn Chess * gnuchessr Chess * gnuchessx Chess * gnuclient gnuserv * gnudoit gnuserv * gnupdisp Shogi * gnuplot gnuplot * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot * gnuserv gnuserv * gnushogi Shogi * gnushogir Shogi * gnushogix Shogi * go GnuGo * gpc xopt * gpc xreq * gperf cperf * gperf libg++ * gprof Binutils * graffiti geomview * graph Graphics * grep grep * grodvi Groff * groff Groff * grops Groff * grotty Groff * groups Shellutils * gs Ghostscript * gsbj Ghostscript * gsdj Ghostscript * gslj Ghostscript * gslp Ghostscript * gsnd Ghostscript * gsrenderfont Fontutils * gunzip gzip * gvclock geomview * gwm xopt * gzexe gzip * gzip gzip * h2ph perl * h2pl perl * hack bsd44 * hangman bsd44 * head Textutils * hello hello * hexdump bsd44 * hexl Emacs * hinge geomview * hostname Shellutils * hp2xx hp2xx * hterm xopt * htmlencode phttpd * httpd apache * httpdecode phttpd * i18nOlwmV2 xopt * i2mif xopt * ico xopt * ico xreq * id Shellutils * ident RCS * ifconfig bsd44 * ifnames Autoconf * ImageMagick xopt * imageto Fontutils * iman xopt * imgrotate Fontutils * indent indent * indxbib Groff * inetd bsd44 * inetd Inetutils * info Texinfo * inimf TeX * init bsd44 * initex TeX * inn bsd44 * install Fileutils * iostat bsd44 * isodiag mkisofs * isodump mkisofs * ispell Ispell * ixterm xopt * ixx xopt * join Textutils * jot bsd44 * jove bsd44 * kdestroy bsd44 * kdump bsd44 * kermit bsd44 * kgames xopt * kgmon bsd44 * kill bsd44 * kinit bsd44 * kinput2 xopt * klist bsd44 * kpasswdd bsd44 * ksrvtgt bsd44 * kterm xopt * ktrace bsd44 * lam bsd44 * larn bsd44 * lasergnu gnuplot * last bsd44 * lastcomm bsd44 * latex TeX * lclock xopt * ld Binutils * leave bsd44 * less less * lesskey less * libavcall.a ffcall * libbfd.a Binutils * libbfd.a GDB * libbzr.a Fontutils * libc.a C Library * libcompat.a bsd44 * libcurses.a bsd44 * libcurses.a ncurses * libdcurses.a ncurses * libedit.a bsd44 * libF77.a f2c * libF77.a g77 * libg++.a libg++ * libgdbm.a gdbm * libgf.a Fontutils * libgmp.a gmp * libgnanslib.a Gnans * libgnussl.a gnussl * libI77.a f2c * libI77.a g77 * libkvm.a bsd44 * libm.a bsd44 * libncurses.a ncurses * libnihcl.a NIHCL * libnihclmi.a NIHCL * libnihclvec.a NIHCL * libnls.a xreq * libobjects.a libobjects * liboctave.a Octave * liboldX.a xreq * libpbm.a Fontutils * libPEXt.a xopt * libpk.a Fontutils * libresolv.a bsd44 * librpc.a bsd44 * libsipp.a SIPP * libtcl.a DejaGnu * libtelnet.a bsd44 * libterm.a bsd44 * libtermcap.a Termcap * libtfm.a Fontutils * libtiff.a tiff * libutil.a bsd44 * libvacall.a ffcall * libWc.a xopt * libwidgets.a Fontutils * libX.a xreq * libXau.a xreq * libXaw.a xreq * libXcp.a xopt * libXcu.a xopt * libXdmcp.a xreq * libXmp.a xopt * libXmu.a xreq * libXO.a xopt * libXop.a xopt * libXp.a xopt * libXpex.a xopt * libXt.a xopt * libXt.a xreq * libXwchar.a xopt * liby.a bsd44 * libYgl.a Ygl * lid ID Utils * limn Fontutils * listres xopt * listres xreq * lkbib Groff * ln Fileutils * locate Findutils * lock bsd44 * logcvt-ip2n phttpd * logger bsd44 * login bsd44 * logname Shellutils * logo ucblogo * lookbib Groff * lorder bsd44 * lpr bsd44 * ls Fileutils * lynx lynx * m4 m4 * mail bsd44 * mail-files Sharutils * mailq smail * mailshar Sharutils * make make * make-docfile Emacs * make-path Emacs * makeindex TeX * makeinfo Texinfo * MakeTeXPK TeX * man bsd44 * man-macros Groff * maniview geomview * mattrib mtools * maze xopt * maze xreq * mazewar xopt * mc mc * mcd mtools * mcopy mtools * mcserv mc * md5sum Textutils * mdel mtools * mdir mtools * me-macros Groff * medit2gv geomview * merge RCS * mesg bsd44 * mf TeX * mformat mtools * mft TeX * mgdiff xopt * mh bsd44 * mille bsd44 * mkafmmap enscript * mkcache GN * mkdep bsd44 * mkdir Fileutils * mkfifo Fileutils * mkid ID Utils * mkisofs mkisofs * mklocale bsd44 * mkmanifest mtools * mkmf bsd44 * mkmodules CVS * mknod Fileutils * mkstr bsd44 * mlabel mtools * mm-macros Groff * mmd mtools * monop bsd44 * more bsd44 * morse bsd44 * mount bsd44 * mountd bsd44 * movemail Emacs * mprof bsd44 * mrd mtools * mread mtools * mren mtools * ms-macros Groff * msgcmp gettext * msgfmt gettext * msgmerge gettext * msgs bsd44 * msgunfmt gettext * mst Smalltalk * mt cpio * mterm xopt * mtree bsd44 * mtype mtools * mule MULE * muncher xopt * mv Fileutils * mvdir Fileutils * mwrite mtools * NDview geomview * nethack NetHack * netstat bsd44 * newfs bsd44 * nfsd bsd44 * nfsiod bsd44 * nfsstat bsd44 * nice Shellutils * nl Textutils * nlmconv Binutils * nm Binutils * nohup Shellutils * nose geomview * notify HylaFAX * nroff Groff * number bsd44 * objc GCC * objcopy Binutils * objdump Binutils * objective-c GCC * obst-boot OBST * obst-CC OBST * obst-cct OBST * obst-cgc OBST * obst-cmp OBST * obst-cnt OBST * obst-cpcnt OBST * obst-csz OBST * obst-dir OBST * obst-dmp OBST * obst-gen OBST * obst-gsh OBST * obst-init OBST * obst-scp OBST * obst-sil OBST * obst-stf OBST * oclock xreq * octave Octave * od Textutils * oleo Oleo * ora-examples xopt * p2c p2c * pagesize bsd44 * palette xopt * pascal bsd44 * passwd bsd44 * paste Textutils * patch patch * patgen TeX * pathalias bsd44 * pathchk Shellutils * pathto smail * pax bsd44 * pbmplus xopt * perl perl * pfbtops Groff * phantasia bsd44 * phttpd phttpd * pic Groff * pico pine * pig bsd44 * pine pine * ping bsd44 * pixedit xopt * pixmap xopt * pktogf TeX * pktype TeX * plaid xopt * plot2fig Graphics * plot2plot Graphics * plot2ps Graphics * plot2tek Graphics * pltotf TeX * pollrcvd HylaFAX * pom bsd44 * pooltype TeX * portmap bsd44 * ppt bsd44 * pr Textutils * pr-addr GNATS * pr-edit GNATS * primes bsd44 * printenv Shellutils * printf Shellutils * protoize GCC * proxygarb Spinner * ps bsd44 * ps2ascii Ghostscript * ps2epsi Ghostscript * ps2fax HylaFAX * psbb Groff * pstat bsd44 * psycho xopt * ptester phttpd * ptx ptx * pubdic+ xopt * puzzle xopt * puzzle xreq * pwd Shellutils * pyramid xopt * query-pr GNATS * quiz bsd44 * quot bsd44 * quota bsd44 * quotacheck bsd44 * quotaon bsd44 * rain bsd44 * random bsd44 * ranlib Binutils * rbootd bsd44 * rc rc * rcp bsd44 * rcp Inetutils * rcs RCS * rcs-to-cvs CVS * rcs2log Emacs * rcsdiff RCS * rcsfreeze RCS * rcsmerge RCS * rdist bsd44 * reboot bsd44 * recode recode * recvstats HylaFAX * red ed * refer Groff * remsync Sharutils * renice bsd44 * repquota bsd44 * restore bsd44 * rev bsd44 * rexecd bsd44 * rexecd Inetutils * rlog RCS * rlogin bsd44 * rlogin Inetutils * rlogind bsd44 * rlogind Inetutils * rm Fileutils * rmail bsd44 * rmdir Fileutils * rmt cpio * rmt tar * robots bsd44 * rogue bsd44 * route bsd44 * routed bsd44 * rr xopt * rs bsd44 * rsh bsd44 * rsh Inetutils * rshd bsd44 * rshd Inetutils * rsmtp smail * runq smail * runtest DejaGnu * runtest.exp DejaGnu * ruptime bsd44 * rwho bsd44 * rwhod bsd44 * s2p perl * sail bsd44 * saoimage SAOimage * savecore bsd44 * sc bsd44 * sccs bsd44 * sccs2rcs CVS * scdisp xopt * screen screen * script bsd44 * scsiformat bsd44 * sctext xopt * sdiff Diffutils * sed sed * send-pr GNATS * sendfax HylaFAX * sendmail bsd44 * sgi2fax HylaFAX * sgn GN * sh bsd44 * shar Sharutils * shinbun xopt * shogi Shogi * showfont xopt * showmount bsd44 * shutdown bsd44 * size Binutils * sj3 xopt * sjxa xopt * slattach bsd44 * sleep Shellutils * sliplogin bsd44 * smail smail * smtpd smail * snake bsd44 * snftobdf xopt * soelim Groff * sort Textutils * sos2obst OBST * spider xopt * split Textutils * startslip bsd44 * stereo geomview * stf OBST * strings Binutils * strip Binutils * stty Shellutils * su Shellutils * sum Textutils * superopt Superopt * swapon bsd44 * sweep geomview * sync bsd44 * sysctl bsd44 * syslog Inetutils * syslogd bsd44 * syslogd Inetutils * systat bsd44 * tabs Termutils * tac Textutils * tackdown geomview * tail Textutils * taintperl perl * talk bsd44 * talk Inetutils * talkd bsd44 * talkd Inetutils * tangle TeX * tar tar * tbl Groff * tcal gcal * tcl DejaGnu * tclsh DejaGnu * tcopy bsd44 * tcp Emacs * tee Shellutils * tek2plot Graphics * telnet bsd44 * telnet Inetutils * telnetd bsd44 * telnetd Inetutils * test Shellutils * test-g++ DejaGnu * test-tool DejaGnu * tetris bsd44 * tex TeX * tex3patch Texinfo * texi2dvi Texinfo * texindex Texinfo * texspell TeX * textfmt HylaFAX * tfmtodit Groff * tftopl TeX * tftp bsd44 * tftp Inetutils * tftpd bsd44 * tftpd Inetutils * tgrind TeX * time time * timed bsd44 * timer Emacs * timex xopt * tip bsd44 * tkpostage xopt * tn3270 bsd44 * togeomview geomview * touch Fileutils * tput Termutils * tr Textutils * traceroute bsd44 * transcript HylaFAX * transfig xopt * transformer geomview * trek bsd44 * trigrp geomview * trn3 bsd44 * troff Groff * trpt bsd44 * trsp bsd44 * true Shellutils * tset bsd44 * tsort bsd44 * tty Shellutils * ttygnans Gnans * tunefs bsd44 * tupdate gettext * tvtwm xopt * twm xreq * ul bsd44 * ulpc Spinner * umount bsd44 * uname Shellutils * uncompress gzip * unexpand Textutils * unifdef bsd44 * unify wdiff * uniq Textutils * unprotoize GCC * unshar Sharutils * unvis bsd44 * update bsd44 * updatedb Findutils * users Shellutils * uuchk UUCP * uucico UUCP * uuconv UUCP * uucp UUCP * uucpd bsd44 * uucpd Inetutils * uudecode Sharutils * uudir UUCP * uuencode Sharutils * uulog UUCP * uuname UUCP * uupath smail * uupick UUCP * uurate UUCP * uusched UUCP * uustat UUCP * uuto UUCP * uux UUCP * uuxqt UUCP * v Fileutils * vacation bsd44 * vandal xopt * vcdiff Emacs * vdir Fileutils * vftovp TeX * vgrind bsd44 * vi nvi * viewres xopt * viewres xreq * vine xopt * vipw bsd44 * virmf TeX * virtex TeX * vis bsd44 * vmstat bsd44 * vptovf TeX * w bsd44 * waisgn GN * wakeup Emacs * wall bsd44 * wargames bsd44 * wc Textutils * wdiff wdiff * weave TeX * what bsd44 * whatis bsd44 * whereis bsd44 * who Shellutils * whoami Shellutils * whois bsd44 * window bsd44 * winterp xopt * wish DejaGnu * wn WN * wndex WN * worm bsd44 * worms bsd44 * write bsd44 * wump bsd44 * x11perf xreq * x2p perl * xalarm xopt * xancur xopt * xargs Findutils * xauth xreq * xbfe Fontutils * xbiff xopt * xbiff xreq * xboard xboard * xboing xopt * xbuffy3 xopt * xcalc xopt * xcalc xreq * xcalendar xopt * xcdplayer xopt * xcell xopt * xclipboard xreq * xclock xreq * xcmdmenu xopt * xcms xopt * xcmsdb xreq * xcmstest xreq * xco xopt * xcolorize xopt * xcolors xopt * xconsole xreq * xcrtca xopt * xdaliclock xopt * xdiary xopt * xditview Groff * xditview xopt * xditview xreq * xdm xreq * xdpyinfo xreq * xdu xopt * xdvi TeX * xdvi xopt * xdvorak xopt * xearth xopt * xed xopt * xedit xopt * xedit xreq * xev xopt * xev xreq * xexit xopt * xeyes xopt * xeyes xreq * xfd xreq * xfed xopt * xfedor xopt * xfeoak xopt * xferstats HylaFAX * xfig xopt * xfontsel xopt * xfontsel xreq * xforecast xopt * xgas xopt * xgas xreq * xgc xopt * xgc xreq * xgettext gettext * xhearts xopt * xhelp xopt * xhost xreq * xinit xreq * xkeycaps xopt * xkill xreq * xlax xopt * xlayout xopt * xlbiff xopt * xless xopt * xload xopt * xload xreq * xlogin xopt * xlogo xreq * xlsatoms xreq * xlsclients xreq * xlsfonts xreq * xmag xreq * xmail xopt * xmailbox xopt * xmailwatcher xopt * xman xopt * xman xreq * xmandel xopt * xmessage xopt * xmeter xopt * xmh xreq * xmh-icons xopt * xmh.editor xopt * xmodmap xreq * xmon xopt * xmove xopt * xmphone xopt * xpd xopt * xphoon xopt * xpipeman xopt * xplot Graphics * xpostit xopt * xpr xopt * xpr xreq * xprompt xopt * xproof xopt * xprop xreq * xpserv xopt * xrdb xreq * xrefresh xreq * xrsh xopt * xrubik xopt * xrunclient xopt * xscope xopt * xscreensaver xopt * xsession xopt * xset xreq * xsetroot xreq * xshogi xshogi * xstdcmap xreq * xstr bsd44 * xtalk xopt * xterm xreq * xterm_color xopt * xtetris xopt * xTeXcad.13 xopt * xtiff xopt * xtokid ID Utils * xtree xopt * xtv xopt * xwd xreq * xwininfo xreq * xwud xreq * yacc bsd44 * yes Shellutils * youbin xopt * yow Emacs * zcat gzip * zcmp gzip * zdiff gzip * zforce gzip * zgrep gzip * zmore gzip * znew gzip * [ Shellutils
The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the source code and includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed manuals, & reference cards.
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.
We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine here. However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine/system--porting is a separate matter. (To commission a port, see the GNU Service Directory; details in section Free Software Support.) Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.
We supply the software on a write-once CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with
"Rock Ridge" extensions),
or on one of these tapes in Unix
1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel,
Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge -- QIC24,
IBM RS/6000 1/4in c.t. -- QIC 150,
Exabyte 8mm c.t., or
DAT 4mm c.t.
If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we
can handle your format.
The manuals included are one each of Bison, Calc, Gawk, GCC, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.
Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our CD-ROMs that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems. The CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.
The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on section Free Software Foundation Order Form, and send it to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place - Suite 330 Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Telephone: +1-617-542-5942 Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652 Electronic Mail:
email@example.comWorld Wide Web: `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu'
We offer the section Source Code CD-ROMs, and section January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, each of which is available as either the latest version at full price, or (while supplies last) an older copy at a reduced price.
Our CDs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it, you can mount each CD with "Rock Ridge" extensions & it will look like a regular Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.
You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.
If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the July 1997 Source CD set costs $240. The set costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.
The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the July 1997 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CDs.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 150 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.
In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do.
However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.
Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.
In January 1997 we released the fourth edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and complete sources for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs. Older editions of this CD are available while supplies last at a reduced price; section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.
* DJGPP * GCC/G++/Objective-C * GNU C Library * GDB * Binutils * Bison * Emacs (MS-DOS only) * Flex * Make * libg++
On these platforms:
We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:
The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock). All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in section GNU Documentation.
Much of X11 is not on the older Source CDs.
There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.
The 10th edition of our Source Code CD is available now with two CD-ROM disks. It has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the older Source CDs. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages. The version number of each package listed might be higher on the 10th edition CD due to new releases being made since this list was generated.
* abuse 2.0 * acct 6.3 * acm 4.8 * aegis 2.3 * apache 1.2.4 * Autoconf 2.12 * Automake 1.2 * BASH 2.01 * bc 1.04 * Binutils 2.8.1 * Bison 1.25 * C Library 2.0.5 * Calc 2.02f * cfengine 1.4.1 * Chess 4.0.pl77 * CLISP 1997.08.07 * Common Lisp 2.2.2 * cook 1.10 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.4.2 * CVS 1.9 * cxref 1.4 * ddd 2.1.1 * DejaGnu 1.3 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.3 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * Elib 1.0 * elisp archive 1997.08.19 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.34 * Emacs 20.1 * enscript 1.5.0 * es 0.84 * Exim 1.70 * f2c 1997.07.13 * ffcall 1.1 * Fileutils 3.16 * Findutils 4.1 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.4 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.19.1 * gawk 3.0.3 * gcal 2.10 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 126.96.36.199 * GDB 4.16 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Generic NQS 3.50.2 * geomview 1.6.1 * gettext 0.10 * gforth 0.3.0 * Ghostscript 3.33 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 2.1 * GIT 4.3.16 * gmp 2.0.2 * GN 2.24 * Gnans 1.5.1 * gnat 3.09 * GNATS 3.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.jp2.0 * GnuGo 1.2 * gnuplot 3.5 * gnuserv 2.1alpha * gnussl 0.2.1 * gpc 2.0 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.11 * guavac 0.3.1 * guile 1.2 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 4.0pl1 * Hyperbole 4.01 * ID Utils 3.2 * ilisp 5.8.a04 * indent 1.9.1 * Inetutils 1.3a * Ispell 3.1.20 * jargon 4.0.0 * karma 1.6 * less 332 * LessTif 0.80 * libg++ 2.7.2 * libobjects 0.1.19 * libtool 1.0 * lynx 2.7.1 * m4 1.4 * make 3.75 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * maxima 5.2 * mc 4.0 * MCSim 4.1 * mesa 2.1 * <Meta-HTML> 5.04 * miscfiles 1.1 * mkisofs 1.11 * mm 1.07 * mtools 3.8 * MULE 2.3 * mutt 0.81 * NetHack 3.2.2 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.79 * Oaklisp 930720 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 2.0.9 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.5 * pcl-gcl 2.2 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.003 * phttpd 0.99.76 * pips 1.01 * plotutils 1.1 * prcs 1.2 * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * readline 2.1 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * Roxen 1.1 * rsync 1.6.3 * rx 1.5 * SAOimage 1.20 * screen 3.7.4 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.2 * Shellutils 1.16 * Shogi 1.2p03 * SIPP 3.1 * smail 3.2 * Smalltalk 1.1.5 * sneps 2.3.1 * spell 1.0 * stow 1.3.2 * Superopt 2.5 * swarm 1.0.2 * tar 1.12 * Termcap 1.3 * Termutils 2.0 * TeX 3.1415 * Texinfo 3.11 * Textutils 1.22 * tiff 3.4 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.7 * ucblogo 4.1 * units 1.53 * UUCP 1.06.1 * vera 1.0 * vrweb 1.5 * W3 2.2.26 * wdiff 0.5 * wget 1.4.5 * windows32api 0.1.2 * WN 1.18.1 * X11R6.3 * xboard 3.6.2 * xgrabsc 2.41 * xinfo 1.01.01 * xmcd 2.2 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 3.1 * zlibc 0.9e
We still have copies of the 9th edition of our Source CD with two CD-ROM disks. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:
* acm 4.7 * apache 1.1.1 * Autoconf 2.12 * Automake 1.0 * BASH 2.0 * bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.7 * Bison 1.25 * C Library 2.0 * Calc 2.02f * cfengine 1.3.16 * Chess 4.0.pl77 * CLISP 1996.05.30 * Common Lisp 2.2.1 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.4.2 * CVS 1.9 * ddd 2.0 * DejaGnu 1.3 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.3 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * Elib 1.0 * elisp archive * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.34 * enscript 1.4.0 * es 0.84 * Exim 1.59 * f2c 1996.12.09 * ffcall 1.1 * Fileutils 3.16 * Findutils 4.1 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.4 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.19 * gawk 3.0.1 * gcal 2.10 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 188.8.131.52 * GDB 4.16 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Generic NQS 3.50.2 * geomview 1.6.1 * gettext 0.10 * gforth 0.2.1 * Ghostscript 3.33 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 2.1 * GIT 4.3.16 * gmp 2.0.2 * GN 2.24 * Gnans 1.5.1 * gnat 3.07 * GNATS 3.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.jp2.0 * GnuGo 1.2 * gnuplot 3.5 * gnuserv 2.1alpha * gnussl 0.2.1 * gpc 2.0 * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.10 * guile 1.0 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 4.0pl1 * Hyperbole 4.01 * ID Utils 3.2 * ilisp 5.8.a04 * indent 1.9.1 * Inetutils 1.2j * Ispell 3.1.20 * jargon 4.0.0 * karma 1.6 * less 321 * libg++ 2.7.2 * libobjects 0.1.19 * lynx 2.6 * m4 1.4 * make 3.75 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * maxima 5.2 * mc 3.2.1 * mesa 2.1 * <Meta-HTML> 5.01 * miscfiles 1.0 * mkisofs 1.05GNU * mm 1.07 * mtools 3.1 * MULE 2.3 * mutt 0.57 * ncurses 1.9.9e * NetHack 3.2.2 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.79 * Oaklisp 930720 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 2.0.2 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * pcl-gcl 2.1 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.003 * phttpd 0.99.72.1 * pine 3.91 * pips 1.01 * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * readline 2.0 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * Roxen 1.1 * rx 1.5 * SAOimage 1.19 * scheme 7.4 * screen 3.7.2 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.2 * Shellutils 1.16 * Shogi 1.2p03 * SIPP 3.1 * smail 3.2 * Smalltalk 1.1.5 * sneps 2.3.1 * stow 1.3.2 * Superopt 2.5 * tar 1.11.8 * Termcap 1.3 * Termutils 2.0 * TeX 3.1415 * Texinfo 3.9 * Textutils 1.22 * tiff 3.4 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.7 * ucblogo 3.6 * units 1.53 * UUCP 1.06.1 * vrweb 1.3 * W3 2.2.26 * wdiff 0.5 * wget 1.4.2b * windows32api 0.1.2 * WN 1.17.1 * X11R6.3 * xboard 3.5.0 * xgrabsc 2.41 * xinfo 1.01.01 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 3.1
Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three Source CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the section Source Code CD-ROMs. The CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently twice a year). Subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM are available on the same basis; these are usually issued once per year.
Each edition of the section Source Code CD-ROMs, has sources for the X Window System as well as GNU software.
Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of the U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription. See "CD-ROMs" and "Tax and Shipping Costs" on section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software; here are the manuals that we publish as printed books. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order them.
Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Manuals currently in lay-flat binding are: Using and Porting GNU CC, GDB, Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, GNU Awk User's Guide, Make, and Bison. Our other manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC binding. Our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.
The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.
Debugging with GDB (for Version 4.16) tells how to run your program under GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The GNU Emacs Manual (13th Edition for Version 20)
describes editing with GNU Emacs.
It explains advanced features, including
international character sets;
outline mode and regular expression search;
how to use special programming modes to write
languages like C++ and TeX;
how to use the
how to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and
other elementary customizations.
Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction (October 1995 Edition 1.04) is for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) and The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition (Japanese Draft Revision 1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) cover this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.
The GNU Awk User's Guide (Edition 1.0 for Version 3.0) tells how
gawk. It is written for those who have never used
describes features of this powerful string and record manipulation
It clearly delineates those features which are part of POSIX
gawk extensions, providing a comprehensive guide
awk program portability.
GNU Make (Edition 0.51 for Version 3.76 Beta) describes GNU
make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual
tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be
compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an
introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically
The Flex manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to
write a lexical scanner definition for the
flex program to create a
C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need
no prior knowledge of scanners.
The Bison Manual (November 1995 Edition for Version 1.25) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.
Using and Porting GNU CC (November 1995 Edition for Version 2.7.2) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++.
The Texinfo manual (Edition 2.24 for Version 3) explains the markup language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, accented & special characters, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes.
The Termcap Manual (3rd Edition for Version 1.3), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.
The C Library Reference Manual (Edition 0.08 for Version 2.0)
describes the library's facilities, including both what Unix calls
"library functions" & "system calls." We are doing small copier runs
of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please send fixes to
The Emacs Calc Manual (for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.
All the software & publications from the FSF are distributed with permission to modify, copy, and redistribute. One way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can also get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering CD-ROMs and books. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if you can. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
There are also third party groups who distribute our software. Some are listed in section Free Software Redistributors Donate. Also see section Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.
If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.
Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins. Please use
one of these other sites that also provide GNU software via FTP (program:
anonymous, password: your e-mail
binary). If you
can't reach one of them, get the software from GNU's main FTP host,
prep.ai.mit.edu (IP address:
hosts & details are in `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' &
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP' on any host.
Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with
lessen FTP traffic. Refer to the `/pub/gnu/README-about-.gz-files'
on each FTP site for instructions on uncompressing them.
unpack do not work!
If you can UUCP, get e-mail instructions from
The front of our T-shirt has our "friendly gnu" logo and the words "GNU's Not Unix!" and "Free Software Foundation". The shirt's back has a quote from Linus Torvalds: "Software is like sex: It's better when it's free."
These thick 100% cotton shirts are available in black or natural (off-white) in sizes M, L, XL, and XXL, and in burgundy or blue-green in L and XL.
GNU T-shirts often create spontaneous friendships at conferences & on university campuses.
We do not support GNU software on most non-Unix-like systems because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.
Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.
firstname.lastname@example.org) and actively supported by a dedicated group of Amiga enthusiasts. There is a mailing list (
email@example.com) for general discussion about Geek Gadgets, and several program specific mailing lists. Send email to
firstname.lastname@example.org the body of the message containing the single word "help", for more information about what lists are available and how to subscribe.
For info on the GNU Emacs port,
ask Dave Gilbert,
for a status update.
You can get more info from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software) in the file `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.
atari.archive.umich.edu, in `/atari/Gnustuff', maintained by Howard Chu,
email@example.com. The GNU software runs on all Atari 68000 and 68030-based systems; a hard drive and 4 MB RAM minimum are recommended for using the compilers. See USENET newsgroups, such as
comp.sys.atari.st.tech, for discussions.
ftp-os2.cdrom.comin `/pub/os2'. One of these is of the GNU C/C++/Objective-C Compiler to OS/2 2.x and OS/2 Warp, with the GNU assembler, documentation, and OS/2-specific C libraries.
This is Eberhard Mattes'
emx port, which also features GDB and many
Unix-related library functions like
fork. Programs compiled by this
port also run on a 80386 under DOS. It is in directory
emx 0.9c is a port of GCC 184.108.40.206.
To join the e-mail list, send email containing `subscribe emx' to
Wishes for this issue are for:
firstname.lastname@example.org make arrangements.
email@example.com the task list and coding standards.
If you use & appreciate our software, please send contributions! (The simplest way to do this is with your credit card.) Another good way to help is to buy GNU books, CD-ROMs, and T-shirts. A business can make a larger contribution by ordering a section The Deluxe Distribution. This is especially helpful if you work for an organization where the word donation is anathema. Because of the value received, the full dollar amounts of such donations are not tax-deductible as charitable contributions; however, they may qualify as a business expense.
Thanks to those who have made substantial monetary donations (see section Become a Patron of the FSF), namely the
Several GNU supporters have requested that donations be made to the FSF in lieu of gifts to themselves. We appreciate their generosity.
Thanks to Richard Edelman of Design Acceleration, Warren Gibson of CSA Engineering, Hitachi Advanced Research Lab, Toon Moene, and Henry Unger of Hitech Systems for their generous donations. Thanks to BR Vehicle Control Engineering Dept. of Toyota Motor Corp. for their donation from their in-house award.
A special thanks to Michael Rubin for his bequest to the FSF. We mourn his passing.
Thanks to all who have lent or donated machines, including: several Anonymous donors, Cygnus Support, Bill Corwin and Susan Corwin of Intel Corp., Warren Gibson, Hewlett-Packard, the Open Software Foundation, Kresten Krab Thorup, Michael Tiemann of Cygnus Solutions, Don Trimmer of Peripheral Device Corporation, and Barton Wright.
Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena, all at MIT, for their invaluable assistance.
Thanks to Derek Davies, Luc Girardin, Nicolai Guba, Martin Hamilton, Joel Holveck, Francis Hsu, Stephen Smoogen, & Joel N. Weber II, for acting as volunteer system adminstrators, and to Paul van Gool for coordinating their efforts. Thanks to Steve Morningthunder & Alex Bernadin for coordinating all of the other GNU volunteers.
Thanks to the many companies and organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution, and to the volunteers who helped us build them.
For their help in Japan, thanks to: the Japan Unix Society, Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Yukitoshi Fujimura, Prof. Takafumi Hayashi, Takeshi Hayashi, Mr. Akiba, Mitsuru Nakamura of Village Center, Inc.
For the FSF booth at Network Users '97 at Makuhari, Japan, for March 5th through 7th: seven students from Ida Lab, Aoyama Gakuin volunteered to sell GNU goods; Japan Unix Society supplied the booth space and misc. support.
For the FSF Tokyo Seminar on March 11th, which was held at Aogaku Kaikan, several LSJP members and several students from Aoyama Gakuin and Waseda University volunteered for simultaneous interpretation and steering, led by Prof. Masayuki Ida.
We thank those groups who have donated us booths at their conferences, including the Sun Users Group.
Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at conferences, and to Cygnus Solutions for helping the GNU Project in many ways.
Thanks to all who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as all who have sent in other source code, documentation, and good bug reports.
Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.
Thanks to the Institute for System Design Technology of GMD--Forschungszentrum Informationstechnik for funding development of GCC array-bounds checking features.
Thanks to all those who support us by ordering T-shirts, manuals, reference cards, distribution CD-ROMs, proceedings, and Deluxe Distributions.
Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this and past Bulletins.
The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.
If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!
Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept any currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.
If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to add the FSF to the list of organizations for your employer's matching gifts program and have your donation matched (see section Cygnus Matches Donations!). If you do not know, please ask your personnel department.
Circle amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place - Suite 330 Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
For special incentives for large donations, see section Become a Patron of the FSF.
$500 $250 $100 $50 Other $_____ Other currency:_____
We accept the following credit cards: Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, Discover, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express. Charges may also be faxed to +1-617-542-2652.
Card type: __________________ Expiration Date: _____________ Account Number: _____________________________________________ Cardholder's Signature: _____________________________________ Name: _______________________________________________________ Street Address: _____________________________________________ City/State/Province: ________________________________________ Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: _______________________________ Telephone Number: ___________________________________________ Email Address: ______________________________________________
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Solutions will continue to contribute corporate funds to the FSF to accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Solutions, which will add its gifts and forward the total to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). To see if your employer is a Cygnus customer, or for more information, please contact Cygnus:
Cygnus Solutions 1325 Chesapeake Terrace Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA Telephone: +1 408 542 9600 +1 800 Cygnus1 (-294-6871) Fax: +1 408 542 9700 Electronic-Mail:
All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute. Texinfo source for each manual and source for each reference card is on the appropriate CD-ROM; the prices for these media do not include printed documentation. All items are provided ``as is'', with no warranty of any kind. Please allow three weeks for delivery (though it won't usually take that long). PRICE AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER January 31, 1998. A possibly more current version of this order form can be found on the World Wide Web at `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/order/order.html' or can be found in file `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/ORDERS' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software). FSF Deluxe Distribution ----------------------- (Please contact us with any questions. See section The Deluxe Distribution, for machine, operating system, and media types.) ____ @ $5000 = $ ______ The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc. Machine: _____________________________________________________________________ Operating system: ____________________________________________________________ Media type: __________________________________________________________________ (Optional) Version of X Window System to link with: __________________________ CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format (see section CD-ROMs): ---------------------------------------------- GNU Source Code CD-ROMs, Version 10 with X11R6.3 (see section July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs): ____ @ $240 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $ 60 = $ ______ for individuals. Subscriptions, next 4 updates of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format (see section CD-ROM Subscription Service): ____ @ $720 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $180 = $ ______ for individuals. GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 4, January 1997 Edition (see section January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM): ____ @ $220 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $55 = $ ______ for individuals. Manuals ------- These manuals (see section GNU Documentation). The latest version of each manual will be shipped. Please contact us if you want a specific version. ____ @ $ 30 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, in two volumes. ____ @ $ 60 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ Using and Porting GNU CC. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU C Library Reference Manual. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc Manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Debugging with GDB, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 25 = $ ______ GNU Awk User's Guide. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Make Manual. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Bison Manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Flex Manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 25 = $ ______ Texinfo Manual. ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Termcap Manual, 3rd Edition Revised. Reference Cards --------------- The following reference cards, in packets of ten. For single copies please contact us. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GNU Emacs version 20 reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GDB reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Bison reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Flex reference cards. T-shirts -------- GNU/FSF T-shirts (see section FSF T-shirt), thick 100% cotton, available in black or natural (off-white) in sizes M, L, XL, and XXL, and in burgundy or blue-green in sizes L and XL. Please list 1st, 2nd, and 3rd choice of color. ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size _____ Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______ ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size _____ Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______ ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size _____ Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______ ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size _____ Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______ Older Items ----------- Older items are only available while supplies last. ____ @ $ 40 = $ ______ Using and Porting GCC, 8.5 x 11 inches, with plastic binding (same text as current edition) Please fill in the number of each older CD-ROM you order: GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROMs: Version 1 (December '93) ______ Version 2 (December '94) ______ Version 3 (December '95) ______ GNU Source Code CD-ROMs: (Version 5 (Dec. '94) is not available.) Version 1 (October '92) ______ Version 2 (May '93) ______ Version 3 (November '93 - last edition with X11R5) ______ Version 4 (May '94 - first edition with X11R6) ______ Version 6 (June '95) ______ Version 7 (Dec. '95) ______ Version 8 (July '96) ______ Version 9 (Jan. '97) ______ Please put the total count and cost of the above older CD-ROMs here: ____ @ $ 80 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ for individuals. ====== Subtotal $ ______ Tax and Shipping Costs ---------------------- + $ ______ For addresses in Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax or give tax exempt number. There is no sales tax on T-shirts. + $ ______ Shipping fee for addresses in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico: $ 5.00 base charge; + $ 5.00 for *each* Emacs Calc or Emacs Lisp Reference manual ($ 5.00 * #ofMans); + $ 20.00 for *each* CD-ROM subscription ($20.00 * #ofSubs); + $ 1.00 for *each* item other than the above (shipping for all other items = $ 1.00 * #ofOtherItems). + $ ______ Shipping fee for most Foreign Destinations: (Please do *not* use this formula for addresses in China, Guam, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, and Thailand. Please contact us for an exact shipping quote.) $ 20.00 base charge for orders to other addresses outside of U.S., Canada, & Puerto Rico: + $ 10.00 for each item ordered, ($ 10.00 * #ofItems) + $ 80.00 for each CD-ROM subscription ($ 80.00 * #ofSubs) (don't count as an item). In Europe, ordering via GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium, may reduce these costs (see section New European Distributor). + $ ______ Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation. We suggest 5% if paying by credit card. TOTAL $ ______ We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in the contiguous 48 states and Canada. For very large orders, ask about actual shipping costs for that order. Note: The shipping fee for foreign destinations covers express courier shipping. If you would like shipping via air mail, please contact our distribution office for a quote on your order. Shipping Information -------------------- Name: ________________________________________________________________________ Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________ Organization: ________________________________________________________________ Street Address: ______________________________________________________________ City, State/Province: ________________________________________________________ Zip Code/Postal Code, Country: _______________________________________________ Telephone number in case of a problem with your order. For international orders, please include a fax number. _______________________ E-mail Address: ______________________________________________________________ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | | Orders filled only upon receipt of check, money order, or credit card | | order in U.S. dollars. Unpaid orders will be returned to the sender. | | We do not have the staff to handle the billing of unpaid orders. Please | | help keep our lives simple by including your payment with your order. | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ For orders from outside the U.S.: --------------------------------- In Europe, you may find it cheaper and more convenient to use our European Distributor. See section New European Distributor. You are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes. If you refuse to pay the charges, the shipper will return or abandon the order. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | | Please make checks payable to the ``Free Software Foundation''. | | | | Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank. | | | --------------------------------------------------------------------------- For Credit Card Orders: ----------------------- The Free Software Foundation takes these credit cards: Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, Discover, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express. Please note that we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in credit card processing fees. Please consider paying by check instead, or adding on a 5% donation to make up the difference. To place a credit card order, please give us this information: Card type: ___________________________________________________________________ Account Number: ______________________________________________________________ Expiration Date: _____________________________________________________________ Cardholder's Name: ___________________________________________________________ Cardholder's Signature: ______________________________________________________ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | | If you wish to pay by wire transfer or you are a reseller, please | | contact us or write us for details. | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A possibly more current version of this order form can be found on the World Wide Web at `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/order/order.html' or can be found in file `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/ORDERS' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software). Please mail orders to: Free Software Foundation 59 Temple Place - Suite 330 Boston, MA 02111 PRICES AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE +1-617-542-5942 WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER January 31, 1998 Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652 Version: July 1997 Info Bull
------- Free Software Foundation, Inc | | Electronic Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org | stamp | 59 Temple Place - Suite 330 | | Boston, MA 02111-1307 | here | USA | | -------
This document was generated on 7 May 1998 using the texi2html translator version 1.52.
|webmaster donations bookstore||delorie software privacy|
|Copyright © 1998 by The Free Software Foundation||Updated May 1998|