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8.3 GCC can't find C++ headers

Q: I installed all the packages, but GCC complains it can't find iostream.h, _string.h and other C++ headers. Where can I find those header files?

Q: GCC complains about being unable to find Complex.h, Regex.h and other header files which start with a capital letter, and I indeed don't see them in my lang/cxx/ directory. Where are they?

Q: My C++ program needs header files whose filenames exceed the 8+3 DOS filename restrictions, like stdiostream.h and streambuf.h, and GCC cannot find those files. How in the world can I write portable C++ programs??

A: All C++ include files are packaged as part of the GNU C++ compiler distribution zip file, so if you didn't install it, GCC won't find them. Files whose names usually start with a capital letter, on MS-DOS have an underscore _ prepended so they can be distinguished from complex.h, regex.h and the like under case-insensitive DOS. Change Complex.h to _Complex.h, and String.h to _String.h in your source, and GCC will find them. The same goes for the header iostreamP.h--you should use _iostreamP.h instead. If you don't have the underscore _ on your keyboard, you might find using strclass.h instead of _String.h easier.

Another possibility to handle header files like Complex.h in a portable way is to pass the -remap switch (supported by GCC 2.8.0 and later) to the pre-processor; see the cpp docs and the readme.DJGPP file in the GCC distribution, for more info about this feature.

The most probable cause of problems with header files whose names exceed the DOS 8+3 limits is that you are compiling on Windows 9X, but the Long File Names (a.k.a. LFN) support is disabled. DJGPP v2.01 comes with LFN disabled by default on the DJGPP.ENV file. To enable it, set the environment variable LFN to y, like this:

  set LFN=y

If the problems with long names of header files aren't solved by this, it is possible that you unpacked the DJGPP distribution with a program which doesn't support long file names. The solution is to install DJGPP again using a different unzip program. unzip32.exe, available from the DJGPP sites, is one possibility.

Some users copy the DJGPP directories after unzipping to another place on their disk, or backup and restore them. If this is done by some program that doesn't support long file names, the compiler won't be able to find header files such as strambuf.h. Editing the directory with some disk-editing tool that doesn't support Windows 9X style long file names can also cause such loss of long file names: when Windows 9X starts up, it checks whether the long file names and their 8+3 aliases are in sync, and if they aren't, the long file names are deleted from the directory, leaving you only with the short file names such as stream~1.h. Type dir *.h to see what are the long file names in the directory; the long names are printed on the right side of the file listing, and the short aliases on the left side, like this:

 stream   h           1,925  12-26-95  8:07p STREAM.H
 stream~1 h          17,020  01-24-96  2:11a streambuf.h

(The files' date, time, and size might be different in your case.) The easiest solution for these cases is to remove the entire DJGPP installation, and unzip everything again.

Another possible cause for lack of support for long file names is that you switch to the so-called "DOS Mode" when running DJGPP programs from Windows 9X. This unloads from memory most of Windows, including the VFAT Filesystem module that supports the LFN API used by DJGPP to access long file names. The solution is to make sure your DOS box's Properties don't force a switch to "DOS Mode".

If you have problems with header files with long filenames, and you run under Windows NT, it usually means that you used an unzip program which supports long file names on NT; unzip again using a DOS unzip program, such as unzip32.exe that is available from the DJGPP sites. Alternatively, you could install an LFN driver for Windows NT, see LFN driver for NT, earlier in this FAQ.

Another possible cause for problems with C++ include files is that your source file has a .c extension. GCC then thinks that this is a C program and doesn't instruct the pre-processor to search the include directories specific to C++. Rename your file to .cc or .cpp extension, or call GCC with the -x c++ switch, and the header files will be found. A full list of extension rules which GCC uses to determine the source language can be found in the list of language-specific suffixes, elsewhere in this FAQ.

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