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12.2 How to begin debugging using the crash dump info

Q: My program crashed with SIGSEGV, but I'm unsure how to begin debugging it....

Q: Can you help me figure out all those funny numbers printed when my program crashes?

A: Debugging should always begin with examining the message printed when the program crashes. That message includes crucial information which usually proves invaluable during debugging. So the first thing you should do is carefully save the entire message. On plain DOS, use the <PrintScreen> key to get a hard copy of the message. On Windows, use the clipboard to copy the message to a text editor or the Notepad, and save it to a file. If you can easily reproduce the crash, try running the program after redirecting the standard error stream, where the crash dump is printed, to a file, e.g. like this:

  redir -e crash.txt myprog [arguments to the program go here]

(here I used the redir program supplied with DJGPP; the -e switch tells it to redirect the standard error stream to the named file). Redirecting the standard error stream to a file has an additional advantage of printing the entire call frame traceback, even if it is very long, whereas when writing to the screen, the DJGPP exit code limits the number of printed stack frames so that the crash message won't scroll off the screen.

After you've saved the crash message, look at the name of the crashed program, usually printed on the 4th line. Knowing which program crashed is important when one program calls another, like if you run a program from RHIDE. Without this step, you might erroneously try to debug the wrong program. (If the program name is garbled, or if <??UNKNOWN??> is printed in its stead, it means the program crashed inside the startup code.)

The next step in the debugging is to find out where in the code did the program crash. The SYMIFY program will help you translate the call frame traceback, which is the last portion of the crash message, into a list of function names, source files and line numbers which describe the sequence of function calls that led to the crash. The top-most line in the call frame traceback is the place where the program crashed, the one below it is the place that called the function which crashed, etc. The last line will usually be in the startup code, in a function called __crt1_startup, but if the screen is too small to print the entire traceback without scrolling, the traceback will be truncated before it gets to the startup. See how to use SYMIFY, for more details about the call frame traceback and SYMIFY usage.

If you compiled your program without the -g switch, or if you stripped the debugging symbols (e.g., using the -s linker switch), running SYMIFY will just repeat the addresses instead of translating them to function names and source file info. You will have to rebuild the program with -g and without -s, before you continue.

Next, you need to get an idea about the cause of the crash. To this end, look at the first two lines of the crash message. There you will find a description of the type of the crash, like this:

 Exiting due to signal SIGSEGV
 Page Fault at eip=00008e89, error=0004

(the actual text in your case will be different). The following table lists common causes for each type of crash:

Page Fault
This usually means the program tried to access some data via a NULL or an uninitialized pointer. A NULL pointer is a pointer which holds an address that is zero; it can come from a failed call to malloc (did your code check for that?). An uninitialized pointer holds some random garbage value; it can come from a missing call to malloc.

The error code (error=0004 in the example above) will usually be either 4 or 6. The former means that the program tried to read (take a value from) the invalid address, the latter means the program tried to write (change the stored value) there.

Sometimes, you might see a somehwat different format of a Page Fault message:

 Page Fault cr2=10000000 at eip e75; flags=6
 eax=00000030 ebx=00000000 ecx=0000000c edx=00000000
 esi=0001a44a edi=00000000 ebp=00000000 esp=00002672
 cs=18 ds=38 es=af fs=0 gs=0 ss=20 error=0002

This message comes from CWSDPMI, which could happen when some crucial data structure in the low-level library code becomes trashed. The value in cr2 is the address which caused the Page Fault exception. In the example above, this address is 0x10000000, and since this is exactly the base address of the DJGPP program under CWSDPMI, it means the program dereferenced a NULL pointer.

If the message says Page Fault in RMCB, then it usually means that the program installed an interrupt handler or a real-mode callback (a.k.a. RMCB), but failed to lock all the memory accessed by the handler or functions it calls. See installing hardware interrupt handlers, for more about this. It also might mean that a program failed to unhook some interrupt before it exited.

General Protection Fault
This can be caused by a variety of reasons:

Overwriting the stack frame can usually be detected by looking at the values of the EBP and ESP registers, printed right below the first two lines. Normally, ESP is slightly smaller than EBP, smaller than the limit of the SS segment, and usually larger than EIP21; anything else is a clear sign of a stack being overrun or overwritten. In particular, if ESP is valid, but EBP is not, it usually means that the stack was overwritten. In some cases, EBP's value might look like a chunk of text, like 0x33313331 (the string 1313, after swapping the bytes due to the fact that x86 is a little-endian machine).

How do you know whether the values of ESP and EBP are valid? To help you, DJGPP v2.02 and later prints the valid limits of the application stack, like this:

App stack: [000afb50..0002fb50]  Exceptn stack: [0002fa2c..0002daec]

(The second range of values, for the "Exceptn stack", shows the 8KB-long stack used by the library for processing hardware exceptions, because the normal application stack might be invalid when an exception happens.)

Another tell-tale sign of an overrun stack frame is that the symified traceback points to a line where the function returns, or to its closing brace. That's because, when a program overruns the stack, the return address saved there gets overwritten by a random value, and the program crashes when the offending function tries to return to an invalid address.

Suspect a stack overflow if the EBP and ESP values are close to one another, but both very low (the stack grows downwards) and outside the valid stack limits printed below the registers' dump, or if the call frame traceback includes many levels, which is a sign of a deep recursion.

Another sign of a stack overflow is when the traceback points to some internal library structure, like __djgpp_exception_table, or if the SS selector is marked as invalid in the crash message.

Stubediting the program to enlarge its stack size might solve problems with stack overflow (but not when the stack is being overwritten as described above). See changing stack size, for a description of how to enlarge the stack. If you use large automatic arrays, an alternative to stubediting is to make the array dimensions smaller, or make the array global, or allocate it at run time using malloc.

Note that, unlike in the cases, described above, where the stack was overwritten, stack overflow usually manifests itself by both ESP and EBP being invalid (outside the valid limits printed by the crashed program).

Stack Fault
Usually means a stack overflow, but can also happen if your code overruns the stack frame (see above).
Floating Point exception
Coprocessor overrun
Division by Zero
These (and some additional) messages, printed when the program crashes due to signal SIGFPE, mean some error in floating-point computations, like division by zero or overflow. Sometimes such errors happen when an int is passed to a function that expects a float or a double.
Cannot continue from exception, exiting due to signal 0123
Cannot continue from exception, exiting due to signal SIGSEGV
This message is printed if your program installed a handler for a fatal signal such as SIGSEGV (0123 in hex is the numeric code of SIGSEGV; see the header signal.h for the other codes), and that handler attempted to return. This is not allowed, since returning to the locus of the exception will just trigger the same exception again and again, so the DJGPP signal-handling machinery aborts the program after printing this message.

If you indeed wanted SIGSEGV to be generated in that case, the way to solve such problems is to modify your signal handler so that it calls either exit or longjmp. If SIGSEGV should not have been triggered, debug this as described below.

Invalid TSS in RMCB
This usually means that a program failed to uninstall its interrupt handler or RMCB when it exited. If you are using DJGPP v2.0, one case where this happens is when a nested program exits by calling abort: v2.0 had a bug in its library whereby calling abort would bypass the cleanup code that restored the keyboard interrupt hooked by the DJGPP startup code; v2.01 solves this bug.

Using the itimer facility in v2.01 programs can also cause such crashes if the program exits abnormally, or doesn't disable the timer before it exits. The exit code in DJGPP v2.02 and later makes sure the original timer interrupt is always restored.

Double Fault
If this message appears when you run your program under CWSDPR0 and press the Interrupt key (Ctrl-<C> or Ctrl-<BREAK>) or the QUIT key (Ctrl-<\>), then this is expected behavior (the SIGINT generation works by invalidating the DS/SS selector, but since CWSDPR0 doesn't switch stacks on exceptions, there's no place to put the exception frame for the exception this triggers, so the program double faults and bails out). Otherwise, treat this as Page Fault.
Control-Break Pressed
Control-C Pressed
INTR key Pressed
QUIT key Pressed
These are not real crashes, but are listed here for completeness. They are printed when Ctrl-<BREAK> or the Interrupt key (by default, Ctrl-<C>) is pressed, which by default abort the program due to signal SIGINT. The QUIT key (by default, Ctrl-<\>) generates the SIGQUIT signal which by default is ignored, but some programs set it to abort the program as well.

If you are lucky, and the crash happened inside your function (as opposed to some library function), then the above info and the symified call frame traceback should almost immediately suggest where's the bug. You need to analyze the source line corresponding to the top-most EIP in the call frame traceback, and look for the variable(s) that could provide one of the reasons listed above. If you cannot figure it out by looking at the source code, run the program under a debugger until it gets to the point of the crash, then examine the variables involved in the crashed computation, to find those which trigger the problem. Finally, use the debugger to find out how did those variables come to get those buggy values.

People which are less lucky have their programs crash inside library functions for which SYMIFY will only print their names, since the libraries are usually compiled without the -g switch. You have several possible ways to debug these cases:

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